Substituted 2-Naphthamidine Inhibitors of Urokinase
[UROK_HUMAN] Defects in PLAU are the cause of Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) [MIM:601709]. QPD is an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder due to a gain-of-function defect in fibrinolysis. Although affected individuals do not exhibit systemic fibrinolysis, they show delayed onset bleeding after challenge, such as surgery. The hallmark of the disorder is markedly increased PLAU levels within platelets, which causes intraplatelet plasmin generation and secondary degradation of alpha-granule proteins.
[UROK_HUMAN] Specifically cleaves the zymogen plasminogen to form the active enzyme plasmin.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The preparation and assessment of biological activity of 6-substituted 2-naphthamidine inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, or urokinase) is described. 2-Naphthamidine was chosen as a starting point based on synthetic considerations and on modeling of substituent vectors. Phenyl amides at the 6-position were found to improve binding; replacement of the amide with other two-atom linkers proved ineffective. The phenyl group itself is situated near the S1' subsite; substitutions off of the phenyl group accessed S1' and other distant binding regions. Three new points of interaction were defined and explored through ring substitution. A solvent-exposed salt bridge with the Asp60A carboxylate was formed using a 4-alkylamino group, improving affinity to K(i) = 40 nM. Inhibitors also accessed two hydrophobic regions. One interaction is characterized by a tight hydrophobic fit made with a small dimple largely defined by His57 and His99; a weaker, less specific interaction involves alkyl groups reaching into the broad prime-side protein binding region near Val41 and the Cys42-Cys58 disulfide, displacing water molecules and leading to small gains in activity. Many inhibitors accessed two of these three regions. Affinities range as low as K(i) = 6 nM, and many compounds had K(i) < 100 nM, while moderate to excellent selectivity was gained versus four of five members of a panel of relevant serine proteases. Also, some selectivity against trypsin was generated via the interaction with Asp60A. X-ray structures of many of these compounds were used to inform our inhibitor design and to increase our understanding of key interactions. In combination with our exploration of 8-substitution patterns, we have identified a number of novel binding interactions for uPA inhibitors.
Identification of novel binding interactions in the development of potent, selective 2-naphthamidine inhibitors of urokinase. Synthesis, structural analysis, and SAR of N-phenyl amide 6-substitution.,Wendt MD, Rockway TW, Geyer A, McClellan W, Weitzberg M, Zhao X, Mantei R, Nienaber VL, Stewart K, Klinghofer V, Giranda VL J Med Chem. 2004 Jan 15;47(2):303-24. PMID:14711304
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.