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POOR BINDING OF A HER-2/NEU EPITOPE (GP2) TO HLA-A2.1 IS DUE TO A LACK OF INTERACTIONS IN THE CENTER OF THE PEPTIDE
[ERBB2_HUMAN] Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) [MIM:137215]. A cancer predisposition syndrome with increased susceptibility to diffuse gastric cancer. Diffuse gastric cancer is a malignant disease characterized by poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions resulting in thickening of the stomach. Malignant tumors start in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. Defects in ERBB2 are involved in the development of glioma (GLM) [MIM:137800]. Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of susceptibility to ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]. Ovarian cancer common malignancy originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian neoplasms have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Defects in ERBB2 may be a cause of lung cancer (LNCR) [MIM:211980]. LNCR is a common malignancy affecting tissues of the lung. The most common form of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. NSCLC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]. A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving ERBB2 may be a cause gastric cancer. Deletions within 17q12 region producing fusion transcripts with CDK12, leading to CDK12-ERBB2 fusion leading to truncated CDK12 protein not in-frame with ERBB2. [B2MG_HUMAN] Defects in B2M are the cause of hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia (HYCATHYP) [MIM:241600]. Affected individuals show marked reduction in serum concentrations of immunoglobulin and albumin, probably due to rapid degradation. Note=Beta-2-microglobulin may adopt the fibrillar configuration of amyloid in certain pathologic states. The capacity to assemble into amyloid fibrils is concentration dependent. Persistently high beta(2)-microglobulin serum levels lead to amyloidosis in patients on long-term hemodialysis.            
[1A02_HUMAN] Involved in the presentation of foreign antigens to the immune system. [ERBB2_HUMAN] Protein tyrosine kinase that is part of several cell surface receptor complexes, but that apparently needs a coreceptor for ligand binding. Essential component of a neuregulin-receptor complex, although neuregulins do not interact with it alone. GP30 is a potential ligand for this receptor. Regulates outgrowth and stabilization of peripheral microtubules (MTs). Upon ERBB2 activation, the MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway elicits the phosphorylation and thus the inhibition of GSK3B at cell membrane. This prevents the phosphorylation of APC and CLASP2, allowing its association with the cell membrane. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization.      In the nucleus is involved in transcriptional regulation. Associates with the 5'-TCAAATTC-3' sequence in the PTGS2/COX-2 promoter and activates its transcription. Implicated in transcriptional activation of CDKN1A; the function involves STAT3 and SRC. Involved in the transcription of rRNA genes by RNA Pol I and enhances protein synthesis and cell growth.      [B2MG_HUMAN] Component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules bind short peptides derived from proteins synthesized within the cell. These complexes of peptide and class I MHC (pMHC) are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. If a clonotypic T cell receptor expressed on a circulating T cell binds to the pMHC complex, the cell presenting the pMHC is killed. In this manner, some tumor cells expressing aberrant proteins are recognized and removed by the immune system. However, not all tumors are recognized efficiently. One reason hypothesized for poor T cell recognition of tumor-associated peptides is poor binding of those peptides to class I MHC molecules. Many peptides, derived from the proto-oncogene HER-2/neu have been shown to be recognized by cytotoxic T cells derived from HLA-A2(+) patients with breast cancer and other adenocarcinomas. Seven of these peptides were found to bind with intermediate to poor affinity. In particular, GP2 (HER-2/neu residues 654-662) binds very poorly even though it is predicted to bind well based upon the presence of the correct HLA-A2.1 peptide-binding motif. Altering the anchor residues to those most favored by HLA-A2.1 did not significantly improve binding affinity. The crystallographic structure shows that unlike other class I-peptide structures, the center of the peptide does not assume one specific conformation and does not make stabilizing contacts with the peptide-binding cleft.
Poor binding of a HER-2/neu epitope (GP2) to HLA-A2.1 is due to a lack of interactions with the center of the peptide.,Kuhns JJ, Batalia MA, Yan S, Collins EJ J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 17;274(51):36422-7. PMID:10593938
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.