CATALYTIC DOMAIN OF PLASMINOGEN
[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.       
[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells. Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of the proenzyme form of the catalytic domain of plasminogen, with the nonessential mutations M585Q, V673M, and M788L, to 2.0 A resolution. The structure presents an inactive protease characterized by Asp740 (chymotrypsinogen 194) hydrogen bonded to His586 (chymotrypsinogen 40), preventing proper formation of the oxyanion hole and S1 specificity pocket. In addition, the catalytic triad residues are misplaced relative to the active conformation adopted by serine proteases in the chymotrypsin family. Finally, a unique form of zymogen inactivation is observed, characterized by a "foot-in-mouth" mechanism in which Trp761 (chymotrypsinogen 215) is folded into the S1 specificity pocket preventing substrate binding.
Crystal structure of the proenzyme domain of plasminogen.,Peisach E, Wang J, de los Santos T, Reich E, Ringe D Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 24;38(34):11180-8. PMID:10460175
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.