Poliovirus Polymerase Full Length Apo Structure
[POLG_POL1M] Capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 form a closed capsid enclosing the viral positive strand RNA genome. VP4 lies on the inner surface of the protein shell formed by VP1, VP2 and VP3. All the three latter proteins contain a beta-sheet structure called beta-barrel jelly roll. Together they form an icosahedral capsid (T=3) composed of 60 copies of each VP1, VP2, and VP3, with a diameter of approximately 300 Angstroms. VP1 is situated at the 12 fivefold axes, whereas VP2 and VP3 are located at the quasi-sixfold axes. The interaction of five VP1 proteins in the fivefold axes results in a prominent protusion extending to about 25 Angstroms from the capsid shell. The resulting structure appears as a steep plateau encircled by a valley or cleft. This depression also termed canyon is the receptor binding site. The capsid interacts with human PVR at this site to provide virion attachment to target cell. This attachment induces virion internalization predominantly through clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis in Hela cells and through caveolin-mediated endocytosis in brain microvascular endothelial cells. VP4 and VP1 subsequently undergo conformational changes leading to the formation of a pore in the endosomal membrane, thereby delivering the viral genome into the cytoplasm.   VP0 precursor is a component of immature procapsids (By similarity).   Protein 2A is a cysteine protease that is responsible for the cleavage between the P1 and P2 regions. It cleaves the host translation initiation factor EIF4G1, in order to shut down the capped cellular mRNA transcription.   Protein 2B affects membrane integrity and cause an increase in membrane permeability (By similarity).   Protein 2C associates with and induces structural rearrangements of intracellular membranes. It displays RNA-binding, nucleotide binding and NTPase activities.   Protein 3A, via its hydrophobic domain, serves as membrane anchor. It also inhibits endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport (By similarity).   Protein 3C is a cysteine protease that generates mature viral proteins from the precursor polyprotein. In addition to its proteolytic activity, it binds to viral RNA, and thus influences viral genome replication. RNA and substrate bind co-operatively to the protease (By similarity).   RNA-directed RNA polymerase 3D-POL replicates genomic and antigenomic RNA by recognizing replications specific signals (By similarity).  
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The active RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus, 3Dpol, is generated by cleavage of the 3CDpro precursor protein, a protease that has no polymerase activity despite containing the entire polymerase domain. By intentionally disrupting a known and persistent crystal packing interaction, we have crystallized the poliovirus polymerase in a new space group and solved the complete structure of the protein at 2.0 A resolution. It shows that the N-terminus of fully processed 3Dpol is buried in a surface pocket where it makes hydrogen bonds that act to position Asp238 in the active site. Asp238 is an essential residue that selects for the 2' OH group of substrate rNTPs, as shown by a 2.35 A structure of a 3Dpol-GTP complex. Mutational, biochemical, and structural data further demonstrate that 3Dpol activity is exquisitely sensitive to mutations at the N-terminus. This sensitivity is the result of allosteric effects where the structure around the buried N-terminus directly affects the positioning of Asp238 in the active site.
Structural basis for proteolysis-dependent activation of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.,Thompson AA, Peersen OB EMBO J. 2004 Sep 1;23(17):3462-71. Epub 2004 Aug 12. PMID:15306852
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.