AUTOINHIBITED SERINE KINASE DOMAIN OF THE GIANT MUSCLE PROTEIN TITIN
[TITIN_HUMAN] Defects in TTN are the cause of hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) [MIM:603689]; also known as Edstrom myopathy. HMERF is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset myopathy with early respiratory muscle involvement. Defects in TTN are the cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy type 9 (CMH9) [MIM:613765]. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a hereditary heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death. Defects in TTN are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1G (CMD1G) [MIM:604145]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death.   Defects in TTN are the cause of tardive tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD) [MIM:600334]; also known as Udd myopathy. TMD is an autosomal dominant, late-onset distal myopathy. Muscle weakness and atrophy are usually confined to the anterior compartment of the lower leg, in particular the tibialis anterior muscle. Clinical symptoms usually occur at age 35-45 years or much later.  Defects in TTN are the cause of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2J (LGMD2J) [MIM:608807]. LGMD2J is an autosomal recessive degenerative myopathy characterized by progressive weakness of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. Severe disability is observed within 20 years of onset. Defects in TTN are the cause of early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy (EOMFC) [MIM:611705]. Early-onset myopathies are inherited muscle disorders that manifest typically from birth or infancy with hypotonia, muscle weakness, and delayed motor development. EOMFC is a titinopathy that, in contrast with the previously described examples, involves both heart and skeletal muscle, has a congenital onset, and is purely recessive. This phenotype is due to homozygous out-of-frame TTN deletions, which lead to a total absence of titin's C-terminal end from striated muscles and to secondary CAPN3 depletion.
[TITIN_HUMAN] Key component in the assembly and functioning of vertebrate striated muscles. By providing connections at the level of individual microfilaments, it contributes to the fine balance of forces between the two halves of the sarcomere. The size and extensibility of the cross-links are the main determinants of sarcomere extensibility properties of muscle. In non-muscle cells, seems to play a role in chromosome condensation and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Might link the lamina network to chromatin or nuclear actin, or both during interphase.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The giant muscle protein titin (connectin) is essential in the temporal and spatial control of the assembly of the highly ordered sarcomeres (contractile units) of striated muscle. Here we present the crystal structure of titin's only catalytic domain, an autoregulated serine kinase (titin kinase). The structure shows how the active site is inhibited by a tyrosine of the kinase domain. We describe a dual mechanism of activation of titin kinase that consists of phosphorylation of this tyrosine and binding of calcium/calmodulin to the regulatory tail. The serine kinase domain of titin is the first known non-arginine-aspartate kinase to be activated by phosphorylation. The phosphorylated tyrosine is not located in the activation segment, as in other kinases, but in the P + 1 loop, indicating that this tyrosine is a binding partner of the titin kinase substrate. Titin kinase phosphorylates the muscle protein telethonin in early differentiating myocytes, indicating that this kinase may act in myofibrillogenesis.
Structural basis for activation of the titin kinase domain during myofibrillogenesis.,Mayans O, van der Ven PF, Wilm M, Mues A, Young P, Furst DO, Wilmanns M, Gautel M Nature. 1998 Oct 29;395(6705):863-9. PMID:9804419
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.