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1u7f

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1u7f, resolution 2.60Å ()
Non-Standard Residues:
Gene: SMAD3, MADH3 (Homo sapiens), SMAD4, MADH4, DPC4 (Homo sapiens)
Related: 1u7v
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Crystal Structure of the phosphorylated Smad3/Smad4 heterotrimeric complex

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The formation of protein complexes between phosphorylated R-Smads and Smad4 is a central event in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. We have determined the crystal structure of two R-Smad/Smad4 complexes, Smad3/Smad4 to 2.5 angstroms, and Smad2/Smad4 to 2.7 angstroms. Both complexes are heterotrimers, comprising two phosphorylated R-Smad subunits and one Smad4 subunit, a finding that was corroborated by isothermal titration calorimetry and mutational studies. Preferential formation of the R-Smad/Smad4 heterotrimer over the R-Smad homotrimer is largely enthalpy driven, contributed by the unique presence of strong electrostatic interactions within the heterotrimeric interfaces. The study supports a common mechanism of Smad protein assembly in TGF-beta superfamily signaling.

Structural basis of heteromeric smad protein assembly in TGF-beta signaling., Chacko BM, Qin BY, Tiwari A, Shi G, Lam S, Hayward LJ, De Caestecker M, Lin K, Mol Cell. 2004 Sep 10;15(5):813-23. PMID:15350224

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[SMAD3_HUMAN] Defects in SMAD3 may be a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]. Defects in SMAD3 are the cause of Loeys-Dietz syndrome 3 (LDS3) [MIM:613795]. An aortic aneurysm syndrome with widespread systemic involvement. The disorder is characterized by the triad of arterial tortuosity and aneurysms, hypertelorism, and bifid uvula or cleft palate. Patients with LDS3 also manifest early-onset osteoarthritis. They lack craniosynostosis and mental retardation. Note=SMAD3 mutations have been reported to be also associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissection (TAAD) (PubMed:21778426). This phenotype is distinguised from LDS3 by having aneurysms restricted to thoracic aorta. As individuals carrying these mutations also exhibit aneurysms of other arteries, including abdominal aorta, iliac, and/or intracranial arteries (PubMed:21778426), they have been classified as LDS3 by the OMIM resource.[1][2] [SMAD4_HUMAN] Defects in SMAD4 are a cause of pancreatic cancer (PNCA) [MIM:260350]. Defects in SMAD4 are a cause of juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) [MIM:174900]; also known as juvenile intestinal polyposis (JIP). JPS is an autosomal dominant gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis syndrome in which patients are at risk for developing gastrointestinal cancers. The lesions are typified by a smooth histological appearance, predominant stroma, cystic spaces and lack of a smooth muscle core. Multiple juvenile polyps usually occur in a number of Mendelian disorders. Sometimes, these polyps occur without associated features as in JPS; here, polyps tend to occur in the large bowel and are associated with an increased risk of colon and other gastrointestinal cancers.[3][4] Defects in SMAD4 are a cause of juvenile polyposis/hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome (JP/HHT) [MIM:175050]. JP/HHT syndrome phenotype consists of the coexistence of juvenile polyposis (JIP) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) [MIM:187300] in a single individual. JIP and HHT are autosomal dominant disorders with distinct and non-overlapping clinical features. The former, an inherited gastrointestinal malignancy predisposition, is caused by mutations in SMAD4 or BMPR1A, and the latter is a vascular malformation disorder caused by mutations in ENG or ACVRL1. All four genes encode proteins involved in the transforming-growth-factor-signaling pathway. Although there are reports of patients and families with phenotypes of both disorders combined, the genetic etiology of this association is unknown. Defects in SMAD4 may be a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]. Defects in SMAD4 may be a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH1) [MIM:178600]. A rare disorder characterized by plexiform lesions of proliferating endothelial cells in pulmonary arterioles. The lesions lead to elevated pulmonary arterial pression, right ventricular failure, and death. The disease can occur from infancy throughout life and it has a mean age at onset of 36 years. Penetrance is reduced. Although familial PPH1 is rare, cases secondary to known etiologies are more common and include those associated with the appetite-suppressant drugs.[5] Defects in SMAD4 are the cause of Myhre syndrome (MYHRS) [MIM:139210]. MYHRS is a syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, generalized muscle hypertrophy and striking muscular build, decreased joint mobility, cryptorchidism, and unusual facies. Dysmorphic facial features include microcephaly, midface hypoplasia, prognathism, and blepharophimosis. Typical skeletal anomalies are short stature, square body shape, broad ribs, iliac hypoplasia, brachydactyly, flattened vertebrae, and thickened calvaria. Other features, such as congenital heart disease, may also occur.[6][7]

Function

[SMAD3_HUMAN] Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and migration of primary keratinocytes and by altering the TGF-mediated chemotaxis of monocytes. This effect on wound healing appears to be hormone-sensitive. Regulator of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibits early healing of bone fractures (By similarity). Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] [SMAD4_HUMAN] Common SMAD (co-SMAD) is the coactivator and mediator of signal transduction by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor). Component of the heterotrimeric SMAD2/SMAD3-SMAD4 complex that forms in the nucleus and is required for the TGF-mediated signaling. Promotes binding of the SMAD2/SMAD4/FAST-1 complex to DNA and provides an activation function required for SMAD1 or SMAD2 to stimulate transcription. Component of the multimeric SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex which forms at the AP1 promoter site; required for syngernistic transcriptional activity in response to TGF-beta. May act as a tumor suppressor. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.[19][20]

About this Structure

1u7f is a 3 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  • Chacko BM, Qin BY, Tiwari A, Shi G, Lam S, Hayward LJ, De Caestecker M, Lin K. Structural basis of heteromeric smad protein assembly in TGF-beta signaling. Mol Cell. 2004 Sep 10;15(5):813-23. PMID:15350224 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.07.016
  1. Regalado ES, Guo DC, Villamizar C, Avidan N, Gilchrist D, McGillivray B, Clarke L, Bernier F, Santos-Cortez RL, Leal SM, Bertoli-Avella AM, Shendure J, Rieder MJ, Nickerson DA, Milewicz DM. Exome sequencing identifies SMAD3 mutations as a cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection with intracranial and other arterial aneurysms. Circ Res. 2011 Sep 2;109(6):680-6. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.248161. Epub 2011 , Jul 21. PMID:21778426 doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.248161
  2. van de Laar IM, Oldenburg RA, Pals G, Roos-Hesselink JW, de Graaf BM, Verhagen JM, Hoedemaekers YM, Willemsen R, Severijnen LA, Venselaar H, Vriend G, Pattynama PM, Collee M, Majoor-Krakauer D, Poldermans D, Frohn-Mulder IM, Micha D, Timmermans J, Hilhorst-Hofstee Y, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Willems PJ, Kros JM, Oei EH, Oostra BA, Wessels MW, Bertoli-Avella AM. Mutations in SMAD3 cause a syndromic form of aortic aneurysms and dissections with early-onset osteoarthritis. Nat Genet. 2011 Feb;43(2):121-6. doi: 10.1038/ng.744. Epub 2011 Jan 9. PMID:21217753 doi:10.1038/ng.744
  3. Houlston R, Bevan S, Williams A, Young J, Dunlop M, Rozen P, Eng C, Markie D, Woodford-Richens K, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Leggett B, Neale K, Phillips R, Sheridan E, Hodgson S, Iwama T, Eccles D, Bodmer W, Tomlinson I. Mutations in DPC4 (SMAD4) cause juvenile polyposis syndrome, but only account for a minority of cases. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Nov;7(12):1907-12. PMID:9811934
  4. Sayed MG, Ahmed AF, Ringold JR, Anderson ME, Bair JL, Mitros FA, Lynch HT, Tinley ST, Petersen GM, Giardiello FM, Vogelstein B, Howe JR. Germline SMAD4 or BMPR1A mutations and phenotype of juvenile polyposis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002 Nov;9(9):901-6. PMID:12417513
  5. Nasim MT, Ogo T, Ahmed M, Randall R, Chowdhury HM, Snape KM, Bradshaw TY, Southgate L, Lee GJ, Jackson I, Lord GM, Gibbs JS, Wilkins MR, Ohta-Ogo K, Nakamura K, Girerd B, Coulet F, Soubrier F, Humbert M, Morrell NW, Trembath RC, Machado RD. Molecular genetic characterization of SMAD signaling molecules in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Hum Mutat. 2011 Dec;32(12):1385-9. doi: 10.1002/humu.21605. Epub 2011 Oct 11. PMID:21898662 doi:10.1002/humu.21605
  6. Caputo V, Cianetti L, Niceta M, Carta C, Ciolfi A, Bocchinfuso G, Carrani E, Dentici ML, Biamino E, Belligni E, Garavelli L, Boccone L, Melis D, Andria G, Gelb BD, Stella L, Silengo M, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M. A restricted spectrum of mutations in the SMAD4 tumor-suppressor gene underlies Myhre syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Jan 13;90(1):161-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.011. PMID:22243968 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.011
  7. Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Abhyankar A, Le Goff W, Serre V, Afenjar A, Destree A, di Rocco M, Heron D, Jacquemont S, Marlin S, Simon M, Tolmie J, Verloes A, Casanova JL, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V. Mutations at a single codon in Mad homology 2 domain of SMAD4 cause Myhre syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011 Dec 11;44(1):85-8. doi: 10.1038/ng.1016. PMID:22158539 doi:10.1038/ng.1016
  8. Zhang Y, Feng XH, Derynck R. Smad3 and Smad4 cooperate with c-Jun/c-Fos to mediate TGF-beta-induced transcription. Nature. 1998 Aug 27;394(6696):909-13. PMID:9732876 doi:10.1038/29814
  9. Lebrun JJ, Takabe K, Chen Y, Vale W. Roles of pathway-specific and inhibitory Smads in activin receptor signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Jan;13(1):15-23. PMID:9892009
  10. Qing J, Zhang Y, Derynck R. Structural and functional characterization of the transforming growth factor-beta -induced Smad3/c-Jun transcriptional cooperativity. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 8;275(49):38802-12. PMID:10995748 doi:10.1074/jbc.M004731200
  11. Matsuura I, Denissova NG, Wang G, He D, Long J, Liu F. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate the antiproliferative function of Smads. Nature. 2004 Jul 8;430(6996):226-31. PMID:15241418 doi:10.1038/nature02650
  12. Wang G, Long J, Matsuura I, He D, Liu F. The Smad3 linker region contains a transcriptional activation domain. Biochem J. 2005 Feb 15;386(Pt 1):29-34. PMID:15588252 doi:10.1042/BJ20041820
  13. Matsuura I, Wang G, He D, Liu F. Identification and characterization of ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation sites in Smad3. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 20;44(37):12546-53. PMID:16156666 doi:10.1021/bi050560g
  14. Lin X, Duan X, Liang YY, Su Y, Wrighton KH, Long J, Hu M, Davis CM, Wang J, Brunicardi FC, Shi Y, Chen YG, Meng A, Feng XH. PPM1A functions as a Smad phosphatase to terminate TGFbeta signaling. Cell. 2006 Jun 2;125(5):915-28. PMID:16751101 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.044
  15. Seong HA, Jung H, Kim KT, Ha H. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12272-89. Epub 2007 Feb 27. PMID:17327236 doi:10.1074/jbc.M609279200
  16. Inoue Y, Itoh Y, Abe K, Okamoto T, Daitoku H, Fukamizu A, Onozaki K, Hayashi H. Smad3 is acetylated by p300/CBP to regulate its transactivation activity. Oncogene. 2007 Jan 25;26(4):500-8. Epub 2006 Jul 24. PMID:16862174 doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209826
  17. Dai F, Lin X, Chang C, Feng XH. Nuclear export of Smad2 and Smad3 by RanBP3 facilitates termination of TGF-beta signaling. Dev Cell. 2009 Mar;16(3):345-57. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2009.01.022. PMID:19289081 doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2009.01.022
  18. Wang G, Matsuura I, He D, Liu F. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible phosphorylation of Smad3. J Biol Chem. 2009 Apr 10;284(15):9663-73. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M809281200. Epub 2009 , Feb 13. PMID:19218245 doi:10.1074/jbc.M809281200
  19. Liu F, Pouponnot C, Massague J. Dual role of the Smad4/DPC4 tumor suppressor in TGFbeta-inducible transcriptional complexes. Genes Dev. 1997 Dec 1;11(23):3157-67. PMID:9389648
  20. Seong HA, Jung H, Kim KT, Ha H. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12272-89. Epub 2007 Feb 27. PMID:17327236 doi:10.1074/jbc.M609279200

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