1uz9

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1uz9, resolution 1.60Å ()
Ligands: , , ,
Related: 1a7f, 1ai0, 1aiy, 1b9e, 1ben, 1efe, 1ev3, 1ev6, 1evr, 1fu2, 1fub, 1g7a, 1g7b, 1guj, 1hiq, 1his, 1hit, 1hls, 1htv, 1hui, 1iog, 1ioh, 1j73, 1jca, 1jco, 1k3m, 1kmf, 1lkq, 1lnp, 1lph, 1mhi, 1mhj, 1mso, 1os3, 1os4, 1q4v, 1qiy, 1qiz, 1qj0, 1sjt, 1sju, 1trz, 1tyl, 1tym, 1vkt, 1xda, 1xgl, 1zeg, 1zeh, 1znj, 2aiy, 2hiu, 3aiy, 4aiy, 5aiy
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC AND SOLUTION STUDIES OF N-LITHOCHOLYL INSULIN: A NEW GENERATION OF PROLONGED-ACTING INSULINS.

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The addition of specific bulky hydrophobic groups to the insulin molecule provides it with affinity for circulating serum albumin and enables it to form soluble macromolecular complexes at the site of subcutaneous injection, thereby securing slow absorption of the insulin analogue into the blood stream and prolonging its half-life once there. N-Lithocholic acid acylated insulin [Lys(B29)-lithocholyl des-(B30) human insulin] has been crystallized and the structure determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.6 A resolution to explore the molecular basis of its assembly. The unit cell in the crystal consists of an insulin hexamer containing two zinc ions, with two m-cresol molecules bound at each dimer-dimer interface stabilizing an R(6) conformation. Six covalently bound lithocholyl groups are arranged symmetrically around the outside of the hexamer. These form specific van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions at the interfaces between neighboring hexamers, possibly representing the kinds of interactions which occur in the soluble aggregates at the site of injection. Comparison with an equivalent nonderivatized native insulin hexamer shows that the addition of the lithocholyl group disrupts neither the important conformational features of the insulin molecule nor its hexamer-forming ability. Indeed, binding studies show that the affinity of N-lithocholyl insulin for the human insulin receptor is not significantly diminished.

Crystallographic and solution studies of N-lithocholyl insulin: a new generation of prolonged-acting human insulins., Whittingham JL, Jonassen I, Havelund S, Roberts SM, Dodson EJ, Verma CS, Wilkinson AJ, Dodson GG, Biochemistry. 2004 May 25;43(20):5987-95. PMID:15147182

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].[1][2][3][4] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.[5] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.[6][7] Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.[8][9][10]

Function

[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

About this Structure

1uz9 is a 2 chain structure. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Whittingham JL, Jonassen I, Havelund S, Roberts SM, Dodson EJ, Verma CS, Wilkinson AJ, Dodson GG. Crystallographic and solution studies of N-lithocholyl insulin: a new generation of prolonged-acting human insulins. Biochemistry. 2004 May 25;43(20):5987-95. PMID:15147182 doi:10.1021/bi036163s
  1. Chan SJ, Seino S, Gruppuso PA, Schwartz R, Steiner DF. A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2194-7. PMID:3470784
  2. Barbetti F, Raben N, Kadowaki T, Cama A, Accili D, Gabbay KH, Merenich JA, Taylor SI, Roth J. Two unrelated patients with familial hyperproinsulinemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in the proinsulin molecule: identification of the mutation by direct sequencing of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid amplified by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jul;71(1):164-9. PMID:2196279
  3. Shibasaki Y, Kawakami T, Kanazawa Y, Akanuma Y, Takaku F. Posttranslational cleavage of proinsulin is blocked by a point mutation in familial hyperproinsulinemia. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):378-80. PMID:4019786 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI111973
  4. Yano H, Kitano N, Morimoto M, Polonsky KS, Imura H, Seino Y. A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto). J Clin Invest. 1992 Jun;89(6):1902-7. PMID:1601997 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI115795
  5. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  6. Stoy J, Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Ye H, Paz VP, Pluzhnikov A, Below JE, Hayes MG, Cox NJ, Lipkind GM, Lipton RB, Greeley SA, Patch AM, Ellard S, Steiner DF, Hattersley AT, Philipson LH, Bell GI. Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15040-4. Epub 2007 Sep 12. PMID:17855560 doi:10.1073/pnas.0707291104
  7. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  8. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  9. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  10. Boesgaard TW, Pruhova S, Andersson EA, Cinek O, Obermannova B, Lauenborg J, Damm P, Bergholdt R, Pociot F, Pisinger C, Barbetti F, Lebl J, Pedersen O, Hansen T. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). BMC Med Genet. 2010 Mar 12;11:42. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-42. PMID:20226046 doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-42

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