|1wq1, resolution 2.50Å ()|
|Gene:||H-RAS-1 (Homo sapiens), GENE FRAGMENT OF P120GAP POSI (Homo sapiens)|
The three-dimensional structure of the complex between human H-Ras bound to guanosine diphosphate and the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating domain of the human GTPase-activating protein p120GAP (GAP-334) in the presence of aluminum fluoride was solved at a resolution of 2.5 angstroms. The structure shows the partly hydrophilic and partly hydrophobic nature of the communication between the two molecules, which explains the sensitivity of the interaction toward both salts and lipids. An arginine side chain (arginine-789) of GAP-334 is supplied into the active site of Ras to neutralize developing charges in the transition state. The switch II region of Ras is stabilized by GAP-334, thus allowing glutamine-61 of Ras, mutation of which activates the oncogenic potential, to participate in catalysis. The structural arrangement in the active site is consistent with a mostly associative mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and provides an explanation for the activation of Ras by glycine-12 and glutamine-61 mutations. Glycine-12 in the transition state mimic is within van der Waals distance of both arginine-789 of GAP-334 and glutamine-61 of Ras, and even its mutation to alanine would disturb the arrangements of residues in the transition state.
The Ras-RasGAP complex: structural basis for GTPase activation and its loss in oncogenic Ras mutants., Scheffzek K, Ahmadian MR, Kabsch W, Wiesmuller L, Lautwein A, Schmitz F, Wittinghofer A, Science. 1997 Jul 18;277(5324):333-8. PMID:9219684
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[RASH_HUMAN] Defects in HRAS are the cause of faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome (FCSS) [MIM:218040]. A rare condition characterized by prenatally increased growth, postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, distinctive facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities (typically pulmonic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and/or atrial tachycardia), tumor predisposition, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Defects in HRAS are the cause of congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS) [MIM:218040]. CMEMS is a variant of Costello syndrome. Defects in HRAS may be a cause of susceptibility to Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) [MIM:607464]. Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of all thyroid cancers. Although they are classified as variants of follicular neoplasms, they are more often multifocal and somewhat more aggressive and are less likely to take up iodine than are other follicular neoplasms. Note=Mutations which change positions 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of HRAS to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors. Defects in HRAS are a cause of susceptibility to bladder cancer (BLC) [MIM:109800]. A malignancy originating in tissues of the urinary bladder. It often presents with multiple tumors appearing at different times and at different sites in the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. They begin in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Bladder cancer is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental influences. Note=Defects in HRAS are the cause of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Defects in HRAS are the cause of Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFM) [MIM:163200]. A disease characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects. Many oral manifestations have been reported, not only including hypoplastic and malformed teeth, and mucosal papillomatosis, but also ankyloglossia, hemihyperplastic tongue, intraoral nevus, giant cell granuloma, ameloblastoma, bone cysts, follicular cysts, oligodontia, and odontodysplasia. Sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko and these can continue as linear intraoral lesions, as in mucosal papillomatosis. [RASA1_HUMAN] Note=Mutations in the SH2 domain of RASA seem to be oncogenic and cause basal cell carcinomas. Defects in RASA1 are the cause of capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CMAVM) [MIM:608354]. CMAVM is a disorder characterized by atypical capillary malformations that are multiple, small, round to oval in shape and pinkish red in color. These capillary malformations are associated with either arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula, or Parkes Weber syndrome. Defects in RASA1 are a cause of Parkes Weber syndrome (PKWS) [MIM:608355]. PKWS is a disorder characterized by a cutaneous flush with underlying multiple micro-arteriovenous fistulas, in association with soft tissue and skeletal hypertrophy of the affected limb.
[RASH_HUMAN] Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. [RASA1_HUMAN] Inhibitory regulator of the Ras-cyclic AMP pathway. Stimulates the GTPase of normal but not oncogenic Ras p21; this stimulation may be further increased in the presence of NCK1.
About this Structure
1wq1 is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. The April 2012 RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month feature on Ras Protein by David Goodsell is 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2012_4. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.
- Scheffzek K, Ahmadian MR, Kabsch W, Wiesmuller L, Lautwein A, Schmitz F, Wittinghofer A. The Ras-RasGAP complex: structural basis for GTPase activation and its loss in oncogenic Ras mutants. Science. 1997 Jul 18;277(5324):333-8. PMID:9219684
- Grigorenko BL, Nemukhin AV, Topol IA, Cachau RE, Burt SK. QM/MM modeling the Ras-GAP catalyzed hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate. Proteins. 2005 Aug 15;60(3):495-503. PMID:15906320 doi:10.1002/prot.20472
- ↑ Aoki Y, Niihori T, Kawame H, Kurosawa K, Ohashi H, Tanaka Y, Filocamo M, Kato K, Suzuki Y, Kure S, Matsubara Y. Germline mutations in HRAS proto-oncogene cause Costello syndrome. Nat Genet. 2005 Oct;37(10):1038-40. Epub 2005 Sep 18. PMID:16170316 doi:ng1641
- ↑ Gripp KW, Lin AE, Stabley DL, Nicholson L, Scott CI Jr, Doyle D, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Zackai EH, Lapunzina P, Gonzalez-Meneses A, Holbrook J, Agresta CA, Gonzalez IL, Sol-Church K. HRAS mutation analysis in Costello syndrome: genotype and phenotype correlation. Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Jan 1;140(1):1-7. PMID:16329078 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31047
- ↑ Kerr B, Delrue MA, Sigaudy S, Perveen R, Marche M, Burgelin I, Stef M, Tang B, Eden OB, O'Sullivan J, De Sandre-Giovannoli A, Reardon W, Brewer C, Bennett C, Quarell O, M'Cann E, Donnai D, Stewart F, Hennekam R, Cave H, Verloes A, Philip N, Lacombe D, Levy N, Arveiler B, Black G. Genotype-phenotype correlation in Costello syndrome: HRAS mutation analysis in 43 cases. J Med Genet. 2006 May;43(5):401-5. Epub 2006 Jan 27. PMID:16443854 doi:jmg.2005.040352
- ↑ Zampino G, Pantaleoni F, Carta C, Cobellis G, Vasta I, Neri C, Pogna EA, De Feo E, Delogu A, Sarkozy A, Atzeri F, Selicorni A, Rauen KA, Cytrynbaum CS, Weksberg R, Dallapiccola B, Ballabio A, Gelb BD, Neri G, Tartaglia M. Diversity, parental germline origin, and phenotypic spectrum of de novo HRAS missense changes in Costello syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2007 Mar;28(3):265-72. PMID:17054105 doi:10.1002/humu.20431
- ↑ Gripp KW, Innes AM, Axelrad ME, Gillan TL, Parboosingh JS, Davies C, Leonard NJ, Lapointe M, Doyle D, Catalano S, Nicholson L, Stabley DL, Sol-Church K. Costello syndrome associated with novel germline HRAS mutations: an attenuated phenotype? Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Mar 15;146A(6):683-90. PMID:18247425 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32227
- ↑ Lo IF, Brewer C, Shannon N, Shorto J, Tang B, Black G, Soo MT, Ng DK, Lam ST, Kerr B. Severe neonatal manifestations of Costello syndrome. J Med Genet. 2008 Mar;45(3):167-71. Epub 2007 Nov 26. PMID:18039947 doi:10.1136/jmg.2007.054411
- ↑ Gremer L, De Luca A, Merbitz-Zahradnik T, Dallapiccola B, Morlot S, Tartaglia M, Kutsche K, Ahmadian MR, Rosenberger G. Duplication of Glu37 in the switch I region of HRAS impairs effector/GAP binding and underlies Costello syndrome by promoting enhanced growth factor-dependent MAPK and AKT activation. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Mar 1;19(5):790-802. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp548. Epub 2009 Dec, 8. PMID:19995790 doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp548
- ↑ van der Burgt I, Kupsky W, Stassou S, Nadroo A, Barroso C, Diem A, Kratz CP, Dvorsky R, Ahmadian MR, Zenker M. Myopathy caused by HRAS germline mutations: implications for disturbed myogenic differentiation in the presence of constitutive HRas activation. J Med Genet. 2007 Jul;44(7):459-62. Epub 2007 Apr 5. PMID:17412879 doi:jmg.2007.049270
- ↑ Sakai E, Rikimaru K, Ueda M, Matsumoto Y, Ishii N, Enomoto S, Yamamoto H, Tsuchida N. The p53 tumor-suppressor gene and ras oncogene mutations in oral squamous-cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1992 Dec 2;52(6):867-72. PMID:1459726
- ↑ Groesser L, Herschberger E, Ruetten A, Ruivenkamp C, Lopriore E, Zutt M, Langmann T, Singer S, Klingseisen L, Schneider-Brachert W, Toll A, Real FX, Landthaler M, Hafner C. Postzygotic HRAS and KRAS mutations cause nevus sebaceous and Schimmelpenning syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 Jun 10;44(7):783-7. doi: 10.1038/ng.2316. PMID:22683711 doi:10.1038/ng.2316
- ↑ Eerola I, Boon LM, Mulliken JB, Burrows PE, Dompmartin A, Watanabe S, Vanwijck R, Vikkula M. Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation, a new clinical and genetic disorder caused by RASA1 mutations. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Dec;73(6):1240-9. Epub 2003 Nov 24. PMID:14639529 doi:S0002-9297(07)63977-9
- ↑ Guil S, de La Iglesia N, Fernandez-Larrea J, Cifuentes D, Ferrer JC, Guinovart JJ, Bach-Elias M. Alternative splicing of the human proto-oncogene c-H-ras renders a new Ras family protein that trafficks to cytoplasm and nucleus. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 1;63(17):5178-87. PMID:14500341
- ↑ Lander HM, Hajjar DP, Hempstead BL, Mirza UA, Chait BT, Campbell S, Quilliam LA. A molecular redox switch on p21(ras). Structural basis for the nitric oxide-p21(ras) interaction. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 14;272(7):4323-6. PMID:9020151
- ↑ Williams JG, Pappu K, Campbell SL. Structural and biochemical studies of p21Ras S-nitrosylation and nitric oxide-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 27;100(11):6376-81. Epub 2003 May 9. PMID:12740440 doi:10.1073/pnas.1037299100
- ↑ Zhang Y, Zhang G, Mollat P, Carles C, Riva M, Frobert Y, Malassine A, Rostene W, Thang DC, Beltchev B, et al.. Purification, characterization, and cellular localization of the 100-kDa human placental GTPase-activating protein. J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 5;268(25):18875-81. PMID:8360177
- ↑ Giglione C, Gonfloni S, Parmeggiani A. Differential actions of p60c-Src and Lck kinases on the Ras regulators p120-GAP and GDP/GTP exchange factor CDC25Mm. Eur J Biochem. 2001 Jun;268(11):3275-83. PMID:11389730