[CHLE_HUMAN] Defects in BCHE are the cause of butyrylcholinesterase deficiency (BChE deficiency) [MIM:177400]. BChE deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by prolonged apnoea after the use of certain anesthetic drugs, including the muscle relaxants succinylcholine or mivacurium and other ester local anesthetics. The duration of the prolonged apnoea varies significantly depending on the extent of the enzyme deficiency. BChE deficiency is a multifactorial disorder. The hereditary condition is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
[CHLE_HUMAN] Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Organophosphorus poisons (OP) bind covalently to the active-site serine of cholinesterases. The inhibited enzyme can usually be reactivated with powerful nucleophiles such as oximes. However, the covalently bound OP can undergo a suicide reaction (termed aging) yielding nonreactivatable enzyme. In human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE), aging involves the residues His438 and Glu197 that are proximal to the active-site serine (Ser198). The mechanism of aging is known in detail for the nerve gases soman, sarin, and tabun as well as the pesticide metabolite isomalathion. Aging of soman- and sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase occurs by C-O bond cleavage, whereas that of tabun- and isomalathion-inhibited acetylcholinesterase occurs by P-N and P-S bond cleavage, respectively. In this work, the crystal structures of hBChE inhibited by the ophthalmic reagents echothiophate (nonaged and aged) and diisopropylfluorophosphate (aged) were solved and refined to 2.1, 2.25, and 2.2 A resolution, respectively. No appreciable shift in the position of the catalytic triad histidine was observed between the aged and nonaged conjugates of hBChE. This absence of shift contrasts with the aged and nonaged crystal structures of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase inhibited by the nerve agent VX. The nonaged hBChE structure shows one water molecule interacting with Glu197 and the catalytic triad histidine (His438). Interestingly, this water molecule is ideally positioned to promote aging by two mechanisms: breaking either a C-O bond or a P-O bond. Pesticides and certain stereoisomers of nerve agents are expected to undergo aging by breaking the P-O bond.
Role of water in aging of human butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by echothiophate: the crystal structure suggests two alternative mechanisms of aging.,Nachon F, Asojo OA, Borgstahl GE, Masson P, Lockridge O Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 1;44(4):1154-62. PMID:15667209
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Chilukuri N, Duysen EG, Parikh K, diTargiani R, Doctor BP, Lockridge O, Saxena A. Adenovirus-transduced human butyrylcholinesterase in mouse blood functions as a bioscavenger of chemical warfare nerve agents. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Sep;76(3):612-7. doi: 10.1124/mol.109.055665. Epub 2009 Jun, 19. PMID:19542320 doi:10.1124/mol.109.055665
↑ Amitay M, Shurki A. The structure of G117H mutant of butyrylcholinesterase: nerve agents scavenger. Proteins. 2009 Nov 1;77(2):370-7. doi: 10.1002/prot.22442. PMID:19452557 doi:10.1002/prot.22442
↑ Nachon F, Asojo OA, Borgstahl GE, Masson P, Lockridge O. Role of water in aging of human butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by echothiophate: the crystal structure suggests two alternative mechanisms of aging. Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 1;44(4):1154-62. PMID:15667209 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi048238d