|1xvp, resolution 2.60Å ()|
|Gene:||NR1I3, CAR (Homo sapiens), RXRA, NR2B1 (Homo sapiens)|
crystal structure of CAR/RXR heterodimer bound with SRC1 peptide, fatty acid and CITCO
The X-ray crystal structure of the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3)/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha, NR2B1) heterodimer sheds light on the mechanism of ligand-independent activation of transcription by nuclear receptors. CAR contains a single-turn Helix X that restricts the conformational freedom of the C-terminal AF2 helix, favoring the active state of the receptor. Helix X and AF2 sit atop four amino acids that shield the CAR ligand binding pocket. A fatty acid ligand was identified in the RXRalpha binding pocket. The endogenous RXRalpha ligand, combined with stabilizing interactions from the heterodimer interface, served to hold RXRalpha in an active conformation. The structure suggests that upon translocation, CAR/RXRalpha heterodimers are preorganized in an active conformation in cells such that they can regulate transcription of target genes. Insights into the molecular basis of CAR constitutive activity can be exploited in the design of inverse agonists as drugs for treatment of obesity.
A structural basis for constitutive activity in the human CAR/RXRalpha heterodimer., Xu RX, Lambert MH, Wisely BB, Warren EN, Weinert EE, Waitt GM, Williams JD, Collins JL, Moore LB, Willson TM, Moore JT, Mol Cell. 2004 Dec 22;16(6):919-28. PMID:15610735
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[RXRA_HUMAN] Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes. [NR1I3_HUMAN] Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element.
About this Structure
- Xu RX, Lambert MH, Wisely BB, Warren EN, Weinert EE, Waitt GM, Williams JD, Collins JL, Moore LB, Willson TM, Moore JT. A structural basis for constitutive activity in the human CAR/RXRalpha heterodimer. Mol Cell. 2004 Dec 22;16(6):919-28. PMID:15610735 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.11.042
- ↑ Gorla-Bajszczak A, Juge-Aubry C, Pernin A, Burger AG, Meier CA. Conserved amino acids in the ligand-binding and tau(i) domains of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha are necessary for heterodimerization with RXR. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999 Jan 25;147(1-2):37-47. PMID:10195690
- ↑ Harish S, Ashok MS, Khanam T, Rangarajan PN. Serine 27, a human retinoid X receptor alpha residue, phosphorylated by protein kinase A is essential for cyclicAMP-mediated downregulation of RXRalpha function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Dec 29;279(3):853-7. PMID:11162439 doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.4043
- ↑ Tsutsumi T, Suzuki T, Shimoike T, Suzuki R, Moriya K, Shintani Y, Fujie H, Matsuura Y, Koike K, Miyamura T. Interaction of hepatitis C virus core protein with retinoid X receptor alpha modulates its transcriptional activity. Hepatology. 2002 Apr;35(4):937-46. PMID:11915042 doi:10.1053/jhep.2002.32470
- ↑ Santos NC, Kim KH. Activity of retinoic acid receptor-alpha is directly regulated at its protein kinase A sites in response to follicle-stimulating hormone signaling. Endocrinology. 2010 May;151(5):2361-72. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-1338. Epub 2010 Mar , 9. PMID:20215566 doi:10.1210/en.2009-1338