Crystal structure of a complex between UBC9, SUMO-1, RANGAP1 and NUP358/RANBP2
[RBP2_HUMAN] Defects in RANBP2 are the cause of encephalopathy acute infection-induced type 3 (IIAE3) [MIM:608033]. A rapidly progressive encephalopathy manifesting in susceptibile individuals with seizures and coma. It can occur within days in otherwise healthy children after common viral infections such as influenza and parainfluenza, without evidence of viral infection of the brain or inflammatory cell infiltration. Brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals characteristic symmetric lesions present in the thalami, pons and brainstem. Note=Mutations in the RANBP2 gene predispose to IIAE3, but by themselves are insufficient to make the phenotype fully penetrant; additional genetic and environmental factors are required (PubMed:19118815). [SUMO1_HUMAN] Defects in SUMO1 are the cause of non-syndromic orofacial cleft type 10 (OFC10) [MIM:613705]; also called non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate 10. OFC10 is a birth defect consisting of cleft lips with or without cleft palate. Cleft lips are associated with cleft palate in two-third of cases. A cleft lip can occur on one or both sides and range in severity from a simple notch in the upper lip to a complete opening in the lip extending into the floor of the nostril and involving the upper gum. Note=A chromosomal aberation involving SUMO1 is the cause of OFC10. Translocation t(2;8)(q33.1;q24.3). The breakpoint occurred in the SUMO1 gene and resulted in haploinsufficiency confirmed by protein assays.
[RBP2_HUMAN] E3 SUMO-protein ligase which facilitates SUMO1 and SUMO2 conjugation by UBE2I. Involved in transport factor (Ran-GTP, karyopherin)-mediated protein import via the F-G repeat-containing domain which acts as a docking site for substrates. Could also have isomerase or chaperone activity and may bind RNA or DNA. Component of the nuclear export pathway. Specific docking site for the nuclear export factor exportin-1.    [UBC9_HUMAN] Accepts the ubiquitin-like proteins SUMO1, SUMO2, SUMO3 and SUMO4 from the UBLE1A-UBLE1B E1 complex and catalyzes their covalent attachment to other proteins with the help of an E3 ligase such as RANBP2 or CBX4. Can catalyze the formation of poly-SUMO chains. Necessary for sumoylation of FOXL2 and KAT5. Essential for nuclear architecture and chromosome segregation.       [SUMO1_HUMAN] Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or a lysine-linked polymer. Covalent attachment via an isopeptide bond to its substrates requires prior activation by the E1 complex SAE1-SAE2 and linkage to the E2 enzyme UBE2I, and can be promoted by E3 ligases such as PIAS1-4, RANBP2 or CBX4. This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. Involved for instance in targeting RANGAP1 to the nuclear pore complex protein RANBP2. Polymeric SUMO1 chains are also susceptible to polyubiquitination which functions as a signal for proteasomal degradation of modified proteins. May also regulate a network of genes involved in palate development.   
Publication Abstract from PubMed
SUMO-1 (for small ubiquitin-related modifier) belongs to the ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) protein family. SUMO conjugation occurs on specific lysine residues within protein targets, regulating pathways involved in differentiation, apoptosis, the cell cycle and responses to stress by altering protein function through changes in activity or cellular localization or by protecting substrates from ubiquitination. Ub/Ubl conjugation occurs in sequential steps and requires the concerted action of E2 conjugating proteins and E3 ligases. In addition to being a SUMO E3, the nucleoporin Nup358/RanBP2 localizes SUMO-conjugated RanGAP1 to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex by means of interactions in a complex that also includes Ubc9, the SUMO E2 conjugating protein. Here we describe the 3.0-A crystal structure of a four-protein complex of Ubc9, a Nup358/RanBP2 E3 ligase domain (IR1-M) and SUMO-1 conjugated to the carboxy-terminal domain of RanGAP1. Structural insights, combined with biochemical and kinetic data obtained with additional substrates, support a model in which Nup358/RanBP2 acts as an E3 by binding both SUMO and Ubc9 to position the SUMO-E2-thioester in an optimal orientation to enhance conjugation.
Insights into E3 ligase activity revealed by a SUMO-RanGAP1-Ubc9-Nup358 complex.,Reverter D, Lima CD Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):687-92. PMID:15931224
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.