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1zhr, resolution 1.73Å ()
Gene: F11 (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Coagulation factor XIa, with EC number
Related: 1zhm, 1zhp, 1zjd
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of Coagulation Factor XI in Complex with Benzamidine (S434A-T475A-C482S-K437A Mutant)

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Activated factor XI (FXIa) is a key enzyme in the amplification phase of the blood-coagulation cascade. Thus, a selective FXIa inhibitor may have lesser bleeding liabilities and provide a safe alternative for antithrombosis therapy to available drugs on the market. In a previous report, the crystal structures of the catalytic domain of FXIa (rhFXI(370-607)) in complex with various ecotin mutants have been described. However, ecotin forms a matrix-like interaction with rhFXI(370-607) and is impossible to displace with small-molecule inhibitors; ecotin crystals are therefore not suitable for iterative structure-based ligand design. In addition, rhFXI(370-607) did not crystallize in the presence of small-molecule ligands. In order to obtain the crystal structure of rhFXI(370-607) with a weak small-molecule ligand, namely benzamidine, several rounds of surface-residue mutation were implemented to promote crystal formation of rhFXI(370-607). A quadruple mutant of rhFXI(370-607) (rhFXI(370-607)-S434A,T475A,C482S,K437A) readily crystallized in the presence of benzamidine. The benzamidine in the preformed crystals was easily exchanged with other FXIa small-molecule inhibitors. These crystals have facilitated the structure-based design of small-molecule FXIa inhibitors.

Mutation of surface residues to promote crystallization of activated factor XI as a complex with benzamidine: an essential step for the iterative structure-based design of factor XI inhibitors., Jin L, Pandey P, Babine RE, Weaver DT, Abdel-Meguid SS, Strickler JE, Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Oct;61(Pt 10):1418-25. Epub 2005, Sep 28. PMID:16204896

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[FA11_HUMAN] Defects in F11 are the cause of factor XI deficiency (FA11D) [MIM:612416]; also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent deficiency or Rosenthal syndrome. It is a hemorrhagic disease characterized by reduced levels and activity of factor XI resulting in moderate bleeding symptoms, usually occurring after trauma or surgery. Patients usually do not present spontaneous bleeding but women can present with menorrhagia. Hemorrhages are usually moderate.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]


[FA11_HUMAN] Factor XI triggers the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by activating factor IX.

About this Structure

1zhr is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Jin L, Pandey P, Babine RE, Weaver DT, Abdel-Meguid SS, Strickler JE. Mutation of surface residues to promote crystallization of activated factor XI as a complex with benzamidine: an essential step for the iterative structure-based design of factor XI inhibitors. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Oct;61(Pt 10):1418-25. Epub 2005, Sep 28. PMID:16204896 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0907444905024340
  • Navaneetham D, Jin L, Pandey P, Strickler JE, Babine RE, Abdel-Meguid SS, Walsh PN. Structural and mutational analyses of the molecular interactions between the catalytic domain of factor XIa and the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain of protease nexin 2. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 28;280(43):36165-75. Epub 2005 Aug 6. PMID:16085935 doi:10.1074/jbc.M504990200
  1. Asakai R, Chung DW, Ratnoff OD, Davie EW. Factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent) deficiency in Ashkenazi Jews is a bleeding disorder that can result from three types of point mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct;86(20):7667-71. PMID:2813350
  2. Meijers JC, Davie EW, Chung DW. Expression of human blood coagulation factor XI: characterization of the defect in factor XI type III deficiency. Blood. 1992 Mar 15;79(6):1435-40. PMID:1547342
  3. Pugh RE, McVey JH, Tuddenham EG, Hancock JF. Six point mutations that cause factor XI deficiency. Blood. 1995 Mar 15;85(6):1509-16. PMID:7888672
  4. Imanaka Y, Lal K, Nishimura T, Bolton-Maggs PH, Tuddenham EG, McVey JH. Identification of two novel mutations in non-Jewish factor XI deficiency. Br J Haematol. 1995 Aug;90(4):916-20. PMID:7669672
  5. Wistinghausen B, Reischer A, Oddoux C, Ostrer H, Nardi M, Karpatkin M. Severe factor XI deficiency in an Arab family associated with a novel mutation in exon 11. Br J Haematol. 1997 Dec;99(3):575-7. PMID:9401068
  6. Martincic D, Zimmerman SA, Ware RE, Sun MF, Whitlock JA, Gailani D. Identification of mutations and polymorphisms in the factor XI genes of an African American family by dideoxyfingerprinting. Blood. 1998 Nov 1;92(9):3309-17. PMID:9787168
  7. Alhaq A, Mitchell M, Sethi M, Rahman S, Flynn G, Boulton P, Caeno G, Smith M, Savidge G. Identification of a novel mutation in a non-Jewish factor XI deficient kindred. Br J Haematol. 1999 Jan;104(1):44-9. PMID:10027710
  8. Mitchell M, Cutler J, Thompson S, Moore G, Jenkins Ap Rees E, Smith M, Savidge G, Alhaq A. Heterozygous factor XI deficiency associated with three novel mutations. Br J Haematol. 1999 Dec;107(4):763-5. PMID:10606881
  9. Zivelin A, Bauduer F, Ducout L, Peretz H, Rosenberg N, Yatuv R, Seligsohn U. Factor XI deficiency in French Basques is caused predominantly by an ancestral Cys38Arg mutation in the factor XI gene. Blood. 2002 Apr 1;99(7):2448-54. PMID:11895778
  10. Kravtsov DV, Wu W, Meijers JC, Sun MF, Blinder MA, Dang TP, Wang H, Gailani D. Dominant factor XI deficiency caused by mutations in the factor XI catalytic domain. Blood. 2004 Jul 1;104(1):128-34. Epub 2004 Mar 16. PMID:15026311 doi:10.1182/blood-2003-10-3530
  11. Dai L, Mitchell M, Carson P, Creagh D, Cutler J, Savidge G, Alhaq A. Severe factor XI deficiency caused by compound heterozygosity. Br J Haematol. 2004 Jun;125(6):817-8. PMID:15180874 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.04979.x
  12. Hill M, McLeod F, Franks H, Gordon B, Dolan G. Genetic analysis in FXI deficiency: six novel mutations and the use of a polymerase chain reaction-based test to define a whole gene deletion. Br J Haematol. 2005 Jun;129(6):825-9. PMID:15953011 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05536.x
  13. Quelin F, Mathonnet F, Potentini-Esnault C, Trigui N, Peynet J, Bastenaire B, Guillon L, Bigel ML, Sauger A, Mazurier C, de Mazancourt P. Identification of five novel mutations in the factor XI gene (F11) of patients with factor XI deficiency. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006 Jan;17(1):69-73. PMID:16607084 doi:10.1097/01.mbc.0000198054.50257.96
  14. Fard-Esfahani P, Lari GR, Ravanbod S, Mirkhani F, Allahyari M, Rassoulzadegan M, Ala F. Seven novel point mutations in the F11 gene in Iranian FXI-deficient patients. Haemophilia. 2008 Jan;14(1):91-5. Epub 2007 Nov 13. PMID:18005151 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2007.01593.x
  15. Kim J, Song J, Lyu CJ, Kim YR, Oh SH, Choi YC, Yoo JH, Choi JR, Kim H, Lee KA. Population-specific spectrum of the F11 mutations in Koreans: evidence for a founder effect. Clin Genet. 2012 Aug;82(2):180-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2011.01732.x. Epub, 2011 Jun 30. PMID:21668437 doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2011.01732.x
  16. Dai L, Rangarajan S, Mitchell M. Three dominant-negative mutations in factor XI-deficient patients. Haemophilia. 2011 Sep;17(5):e919-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2011.02519.x. Epub , 2011 Apr 3. PMID:21457405 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2011.02519.x
  17. Lee JH, Cho HS, Hyun MS, Kim HY, Kim HJ. A novel missense mutation Asp506Gly in Exon 13 of the F11 gene in an asymptomatic Korean woman with mild factor XI deficiency. Korean J Lab Med. 2011 Oct;31(4):290-3. doi: 10.3343/kjlm.2011.31.4.290. Epub, 2011 Oct 3. PMID:22016685 doi:10.3343/kjlm.2011.31.4.290
  18. Tirefort Y, Uhr MR, Neerman-Arbez M, de Moerloose P. Identification of a novel F11 missense mutation (Ile463Ser) in a family with congenital factor XI deficiency. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012 Apr;23(3):251-2. doi:, 10.1097/MBC.0b013e32834ea02a. PMID:22322133 doi:10.1097/MBC.0b013e32834ea02a
  19. Girolami A, Scarparo P, Bonamigo E, Santarossa L, Cristiani A, Moro S, Lombardi AM. A cluster of factor XI-deficient patients due to a new mutation (Ile 436 Lys) in northeastern Italy. Eur J Haematol. 2012 Mar;88(3):229-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2011.01723.x., Epub 2011 Nov 17. PMID:21999818 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2011.01723.x
  20. Gueguen P, Chauvin A, Quemener-Redon S, Pan-Petesch B, Ferec C, Abgrall JF, Le Marechal C. Revisiting the molecular epidemiology of factor XI deficiency: nine new mutations and an original large 4qTer deletion in western Brittany (France). Thromb Haemost. 2012 Jan;107(1):44-50. doi: 10.1160/TH11-06-0415. Epub 2011 Dec, 8. PMID:22159456 doi:10.1160/TH11-06-0415

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