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1zjd

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1zjd, resolution 2.60Å ()
Gene: F11 (Homo sapiens), APP, A4, AD1F11 (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Coagulation factor XIa, with EC number 3.4.21.27
Related: 1zhm, 1zhp, 1zhr
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of Coagulation Factor XI in Complex with Kunitz Protease Inhibitor Domain of Protease Nexin II

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Factor XIa (FXIa) is a serine protease important for initiating the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Protease nexin 2 (PN2) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor secreted by activated platelets and a physiologically important inhibitor of FXIa. Inhibition of FXIa by PN2 requires interactions between the two proteins that are confined to the catalytic domain of the enzyme and the Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain of PN2. Recombinant PN2KPI and a mutant form of the FXI catalytic domain (FXIac) were expressed in yeast, purified to homogeneity, co-crystallized, and the structure of the complex was solved at 2.6 angstroms (Protein Data Bank code 1ZJD). In this complex, PN2KPI has a characteristic, disulfide-stabilized double loop structure that fits into the FXIac active site. To determine the contributions of residues within PN2KPI to its inhibitory activity, selected point mutations in PN2KPI loop 1 11TGPCRAMISR20 and loop 2 34FYGGC38 were tested for their ability to inhibit FXIa. The P1 site mutation R15A completely abolished its ability to inhibit FXIa. IC50 values for the wild type protein and the remaining mutants were as follows: PN2KPI WT, 1.28 nM; P13A, 5.92 nM; M17A, 1.62 nM; S19A, 1.86 nM; R20A, 5.67 nM; F34A, 9.85 nM. The IC50 values for the M17A and S19A mutants were not significantly different from those obtained with wild type PN2KPI. These functional studies and activated partial thromboplastin time analysis validate predictions made from the PN2KPI-FXIac co-crystal structure and implicate PN2KPI residues, in descending order of importance, Arg15, Phe34, Pro13, and Arg20 in FXIa inhibition by PN2KPI.

Structural and mutational analyses of the molecular interactions between the catalytic domain of factor XIa and the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain of protease nexin 2., Navaneetham D, Jin L, Pandey P, Strickler JE, Babine RE, Abdel-Meguid SS, Walsh PN, J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 28;280(43):36165-75. Epub 2005 Aug 6. PMID:16085935

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[FA11_HUMAN] Defects in F11 are the cause of factor XI deficiency (FA11D) [MIM:612416]; also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent deficiency or Rosenthal syndrome. It is a hemorrhagic disease characterized by reduced levels and activity of factor XI resulting in moderate bleeding symptoms, usually occurring after trauma or surgery. Patients usually do not present spontaneous bleeding but women can present with menorrhagia. Hemorrhages are usually moderate.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] [A4_HUMAN] Defects in APP are the cause of Alzheimer disease type 1 (AD1) [MIM:104300]. AD1 is a familial early-onset form of Alzheimer disease. It can be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits. The major constituent of these plaques is the neurotoxic amyloid-beta-APP 40-42 peptide (s), derived proteolytically from the transmembrane precursor protein APP by sequential secretase processing. The cytotoxic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products such as C31 derived from APP, are also implicated in neuronal death.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] Defects in APP are the cause of cerebral amyloid angiopathy APP-related (CAA-APP) [MIM:605714]. A hereditary localized amyloidosis due to amyloid-beta A4 peptide(s) deposition in the cerebral vessels. The principal clinical characteristics are recurrent cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhages, recurrent strokes, cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and progressive mental deterioration. Patients develop cerebral hemorrhage because of the severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Parenchymal amyloid deposits are rare and largely in the form of pre-amyloid lesions or diffuse plaque-like structures. They are Congo red negative and lack the dense amyloid cores commonly present in Alzheimer disease. Some affected individuals manifest progressive aphasic dementia, leukoencephalopathy, and occipital calcifications.[47][48][49][50][51]

Function

[FA11_HUMAN] Factor XI triggers the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by activating factor IX. [A4_HUMAN] Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.[52][53][54][55][56] Beta-amyloid peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Beta-amyloid 42 is a more effective reductant than beta-amyloid 40. Beta-amyloid peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. Beta-APP42 may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with Also bind GPC1 in lipid rafts.[57][58][59][60][61] Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain (By similarity).[62][63][64][65][66] The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.[67][68][69][70][71] N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).[72][73][74][75][76]

About this Structure

1zjd is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

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  53. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  54. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
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  56. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  57. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  58. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  59. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  60. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  61. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  62. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  63. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  64. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  65. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  66. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  67. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  68. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  69. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  70. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  71. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  72. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  73. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  74. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  75. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  76. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106

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