Crystal Structure and Paratope Determination of 82D6A3, an Antithrombotic Antibody Directed Against the von Willebrand factor A3-Domain
[VWF_HUMAN] Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 1 (VWD1) [MIM:193400]. A common hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 1 is characterized by partial quantitative deficiency of circulating von Willebrand factor, that is otherwise structurally and functionally normal. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma.  Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 2 (VWD2) [MIM:613554]. A hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 2 is characterized by qualitative deficiency and functional anomalies of von Willebrand factor. It is divided in different subtypes including 2A, 2B, 2M and 2N (Normandy variant). The mutant VWF protein in types 2A, 2B and 2M are defective in their platelet-dependent function, whereas the mutant protein in type 2N is defective in its ability to bind factor VIII. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma. Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 3 (VWD3) [MIM:277480]. A severe hemorrhagic disorder due to a total or near total absence of von Willebrand factor in the plasma and cellular compartments, also leading to a profound deficiency of plasmatic factor VIII. Bleeding usually starts in infancy and can include epistaxis, recurrent mucocutaneous bleeding, excessive bleeding after minor trauma, and hemarthroses.
[VWF_HUMAN] Important in the maintenance of hemostasis, it promotes adhesion of platelets to the sites of vascular injury by forming a molecular bridge between sub-endothelial collagen matrix and platelet-surface receptor complex GPIb-IX-V. Also acts as a chaperone for coagulation factor VIII, delivering it to the site of injury, stabilizing its heterodimeric structure and protecting it from premature clearance from plasma.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The antithrombotic monoclonal antibody 82D6A3 is directed against amino acids Arg-963, Pro-981, Asp-1009, Arg-1016, Ser-1020, Met-1022, and His-1023 of the von Willebrand factor A3-domain (Vanhoorelbeke, K., Depraetere, H., Romijn, R. A., Huizinga, E., De Maeyer, M., and Deckmyn, H. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 37815-37821). By this, it potently inhibits the interaction of von Willebrand factor to collagens, which is a prerequisite for blood platelet adhesion to the injured vessel wall at sites of high shear. To fully understand the mode of action of 82D6A3 at the molecular level, we resolved its crystal structure in complex with the A3-domain and fine mapped its paratope by construction and characterization of 13 mutants. The paratope predominantly consists of two short sequences in the heavy chain CDR1 (Asn-31 and Tyr-32) and CDR3 (Asp-99, Pro-101, Tyr-102 and Tyr-103), forming one patch on the surface of the antibody. Trp-50 of the heavy and His-49 of the light chain, both situated adjacent to the patch, play ancillary roles in antigen binding. The crystal structure furthermore confirms the epitope location, which largely overlaps with the collagen binding site deduced from mutagenesis of the A3-domain (Romijn, R. A., Westein, E., Bouma, B., Schiphorst, M. E., Sixma, J. J., Lenting, P. J., and Huizinga, E. G. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 15035-15039). We herewith further consolidate the location of the collagen binding site and reveal that the potent action of the antibody is due to direct competition for the same interaction site. This information allows the design of a paratope-mimicking peptide with antithrombotic properties.
Paratope determination of the antithrombotic antibody 82D6A3 based on the crystal structure of its complex with the von Willebrand factor A3-domain.,Staelens S, Hadders MA, Vauterin S, Platteau C, De Maeyer M, Vanhoorelbeke K, Huizinga EG, Deckmyn H J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 27;281(4):2225-31. Epub 2005 Nov 28. PMID:16314412
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