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Structural Basis of DNA Recognition by p53 Tetramers (complex III)
The tumor-suppressor protein p53 is among the most effective of the cell's natural defenses against cancer. In response to cellular stress, p53 binds as a tetramer to diverse DNA targets containing two decameric half-sites, thereby activating the expression of genes involved in cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis. Here we present high-resolution crystal structures of sequence-specific complexes between the core domain of human p53 and different DNA half-sites. In all structures, four p53 molecules self-assemble on two DNA half-sites to form a tetramer that is a dimer of dimers, stabilized by protein-protein and base-stacking interactions. The protein-DNA interface varies as a function of the specific base sequence in correlation with the measured binding affinities of the complexes. The new data establish a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of specificity, affinity, and cooperativity of DNA binding by p53 and suggest a model for its regulation by regions outside the sequence-specific DNA binding domain.
Structural basis of DNA recognition by p53 tetramers., Kitayner M, Rozenberg H, Kessler N, Rabinovich D, Shaulov L, Haran TE, Shakked Z, Mol Cell. 2006 Jun 23;22(6):741-53. PMID:16793544
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[P53_HUMAN] Note=TP53 is found in increased amounts in a wide variety of transformed cells. TP53 is frequently mutated or inactivated in about 60% of cancers. TP53 defects are found in Barrett metaplasia a condition in which the normally stratified squamous epithelium of the lower esophagus is replaced by a metaplastic columnar epithelium. The condition develops as a complication in approximately 10% of patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Defects in TP53 are a cause of esophageal cancer (ESCR) [MIM:133239]. Defects in TP53 are a cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) [MIM:151623]. LFS is an autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome that in its classic form is defined by the existence of a proband affected by a sarcoma before 45 years with a first degree relative affected by any tumor before 45 years and another first degree relative with any tumor before 45 years or a sarcoma at any age. Other clinical definitions for LFS have been proposed (PubMed:8118819 and PubMed:8718514) and called Li-Fraumeni like syndrome (LFL). In these families affected relatives develop a diverse set of malignancies at unusually early ages. Four types of cancers account for 80% of tumors occurring in TP53 germline mutation carriers: breast cancers, soft tissue and bone sarcomas, brain tumors (astrocytomas) and adrenocortical carcinomas. Less frequent tumors include choroid plexus carcinoma or papilloma before the age of 15, rhabdomyosarcoma before the age of 5, leukemia, Wilms tumor, malignant phyllodes tumor, colorectal and gastric cancers. Defects in TP53 are involved in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) [MIM:275355]; also known as squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Defects in TP53 are a cause of lung cancer (LNCR) [MIM:211980]. LNCR is a common malignancy affecting tissues of the lung. The most common form of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. NSCLC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Defects in TP53 are a cause of choroid plexus papilloma (CPLPA) [MIM:260500]. Choroid plexus papilloma is a slow-growing benign tumor of the choroid plexus that often invades the leptomeninges. In children it is usually in a lateral ventricle but in adults it is more often in the fourth ventricle. Hydrocephalus is common, either from obstruction or from tumor secretion of cerebrospinal fluid. If it undergoes malignant transformation it is called a choroid plexus carcinoma. Primary choroid plexus tumors are rare and usually occur in early childhood. Defects in TP53 are a cause of adrenocortical carcinoma (ADCC) [MIM:202300]. ADCC is a rare childhood tumor of the adrenal cortex. It occurs with increased frequency in patients with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and is a component tumor in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Defects in TP53 are the cause of susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma 7 (BCC7) [MIM:614740]. A common malignant skin neoplasm that typically appears on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. It is slow growing and rarely metastasizes, but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. It usually develops as a flat, firm, pale area that is small, raised, pink or red, translucent, shiny, and waxy, and the area may bleed following minor injury. Tumor size can vary from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
[P53_HUMAN] Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. In cooperation with mitochondrial PPIF is involved in activating oxidative stress-induced necrosis; te function is largely independent of transcription. Induces the transcription of long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) and lincRNA-Mkln1. LincRNA-p21 participates in TP53-dependent transcriptional repression leading to apoptosis and seem to have to effect on cell-cycle regulation. Implicated in Notch signaling cross-over. Prevents CDK7 kinase activity when associated to CAK complex in response to DNA damage, thus stopping cell cycle progression. Isoform 2 enhances the transactivation activity of isoform 1 from some but not all TP53-inducible promoters. Isoform 4 suppresses transactivation activity and impairs growth suppression mediated by isoform 1. Isoform 7 inhibits isoform 1-mediated apoptosis.
About this Structure
- Kitayner M, Rozenberg H, Kessler N, Rabinovich D, Shaulov L, Haran TE, Shakked Z. Structural basis of DNA recognition by p53 tetramers. Mol Cell. 2006 Jun 23;22(6):741-53. PMID:16793544 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2006.05.015
- ↑ Chehab NH, Malikzay A, Stavridi ES, Halazonetis TD. Phosphorylation of Ser-20 mediates stabilization of human p53 in response to DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 23;96(24):13777-82. PMID:10570149
- ↑ Law JC, Strong LC, Chidambaram A, Ferrell RE. A germ line mutation in exon 5 of the p53 gene in an extended cancer family. Cancer Res. 1991 Dec 1;51(23 Pt 1):6385-7. PMID:1933902
- ↑ Malkin D, Li FP, Strong LC, Fraumeni JF Jr, Nelson CE, Kim DH, Kassel J, Gryka MA, Bischoff FZ, Tainsky MA, et al.. Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms. Science. 1990 Nov 30;250(4985):1233-8. PMID:1978757
- ↑ Srivastava S, Zou ZQ, Pirollo K, Blattner W, Chang EH. Germ-line transmission of a mutated p53 gene in a cancer-prone family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Nature. 1990 Dec 20-27;348(6303):747-9. PMID:2259385 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/348747a0
- ↑ Felix CA, Nau MM, Takahashi T, Mitsudomi T, Chiba I, Poplack DG, Reaman GH, Cole DE, Letterio JJ, Whang-Peng J, et al.. Hereditary and acquired p53 gene mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Invest. 1992 Feb;89(2):640-7. PMID:1737852 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI115630
- ↑ Malkin D, Jolly KW, Barbier N, Look AT, Friend SH, Gebhardt MC, Andersen TI, Borresen AL, Li FP, Garber J, et al.. Germline mutations of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene in children and young adults with second malignant neoplasms. N Engl J Med. 1992 May 14;326(20):1309-15. PMID:1565144 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199205143262002
- ↑ Frebourg T, Barbier N, Yan YX, Garber JE, Dreyfus M, Fraumeni J Jr, Li FP, Friend SH. Germ-line p53 mutations in 15 families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Mar;56(3):608-15. PMID:7887414
- ↑ Varley JM, McGown G, Thorncroft M, Tricker KJ, Teare MD, Santibanez-Koref MF, Martin J, Birch JM, Evans DG. An extended Li-Fraumeni kindred with gastric carcinoma and a codon 175 mutation in TP53. J Med Genet. 1995 Dec;32(12):942-5. PMID:8825920
- ↑ Luca JW, Strong LC, Hansen MF. A germline missense mutation R337C in exon 10 of the human p53 gene. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S58-61. PMID:9452042
- ↑ Guran S, Tunca Y, Imirzalioglu N. Hereditary TP53 codon 292 and somatic P16INK4A codon 94 mutations in a Li-Fraumeni syndrome family. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1999 Sep;113(2):145-51. PMID:10484981
- ↑ Rutherford J, Chu CE, Duddy PM, Charlton RS, Chumas P, Taylor GR, Lu X, Barnes DM, Camplejohn RS. Investigations on a clinically and functionally unusual and novel germline p53 mutation. Br J Cancer. 2002 May 20;86(10):1592-6. PMID:12085209 doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600269
- ↑ Ribeiro RC, Sandrini F, Figueiredo B, Zambetti GP, Michalkiewicz E, Lafferty AR, DeLacerda L, Rabin M, Cadwell C, Sampaio G, Cat I, Stratakis CA, Sandrini R. An inherited p53 mutation that contributes in a tissue-specific manner to pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 31;98(16):9330-5. PMID:11481490 doi:10.1073/pnas.161479898
- ↑ Stacey SN, Sulem P, Jonasdottir A, Masson G, Gudmundsson J, Gudbjartsson DF, Magnusson OT, Gudjonsson SA, Sigurgeirsson B, Thorisdottir K, Ragnarsson R, Benediktsdottir KR, Nexo BA, Tjonneland A, Overvad K, Rudnai P, Gurzau E, Koppova K, Hemminki K, Corredera C, Fuentelsaz V, Grasa P, Navarrete S, Fuertes F, Garcia-Prats MD, Sanambrosio E, Panadero A, De Juan A, Garcia A, Rivera F, Planelles D, Soriano V, Requena C, Aben KK, van Rossum MM, Cremers RG, van Oort IM, van Spronsen DJ, Schalken JA, Peters WH, Helfand BT, Donovan JL, Hamdy FC, Badescu D, Codreanu O, Jinga M, Csiki IE, Constantinescu V, Badea P, Mates IN, Dinu DE, Constantin A, Mates D, Kristjansdottir S, Agnarsson BA, Jonsson E, Barkardottir RB, Einarsson GV, Sigurdsson F, Moller PH, Stefansson T, Valdimarsson T, Johannsson OT, Sigurdsson H, Jonsson T, Jonasson JG, Tryggvadottir L, Rice T, Hansen HM, Xiao Y, Lachance DH, O Neill BP, Kosel ML, Decker PA, Thorleifsson G, Johannsdottir H, Helgadottir HT, Sigurdsson A, Steinthorsdottir V, Lindblom A, Sandler RS, Keku TO, Banasik K, Jorgensen T, Witte DR, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Jinga V, Neal DE, Catalona WJ, Wrensch M, Wiencke J, Jenkins RB, Nagore E, Vogel U, Kiemeney LA, Kumar R, Mayordomo JI, Olafsson JH, Kong A, Thorsteinsdottir U, Rafnar T, Stefansson K. A germline variant in the TP53 polyadenylation signal confers cancer susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2011 Sep 25;43(11):1098-103. doi: 10.1038/ng.926. PMID:21946351 doi:10.1038/ng.926
- ↑ Schneider E, Montenarh M, Wagner P. Regulation of CAK kinase activity by p53. Oncogene. 1998 Nov 26;17(21):2733-41. PMID:9840937 doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202504
- ↑ Guo A, Salomoni P, Luo J, Shih A, Zhong S, Gu W, Pandolfi PP. The function of PML in p53-dependent apoptosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;2(10):730-6. PMID:11025664 doi:10.1038/35036365
- ↑ Louria-Hayon I, Grossman T, Sionov RV, Alsheich O, Pandolfi PP, Haupt Y. The promyelocytic leukemia protein protects p53 from Mdm2-mediated inhibition and degradation. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 29;278(35):33134-41. Epub 2003 Jun 16. PMID:12810724 doi:10.1074/jbc.M301264200
- ↑ An W, Kim J, Roeder RG. Ordered cooperative functions of PRMT1, p300, and CARM1 in transcriptional activation by p53. Cell. 2004 Jun 11;117(6):735-48. PMID:15186775 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.05.009
- ↑ Ghosh A, Stewart D, Matlashewski G. Regulation of human p53 activity and cell localization by alternative splicing. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;24(18):7987-97. PMID:15340061 doi:10.1128/MCB.24.18.7987-7997.2004
- ↑ Zhao Y, Katzman RB, Delmolino LM, Bhat I, Zhang Y, Gurumurthy CB, Germaniuk-Kurowska A, Reddi HV, Solomon A, Zeng MS, Kung A, Ma H, Gao Q, Dimri G, Stanculescu A, Miele L, Wu L, Griffin JD, Wazer DE, Band H, Band V. The notch regulator MAML1 interacts with p53 and functions as a coactivator. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11969-81. Epub 2007 Feb 22. PMID:17317671 doi:M608974200
- ↑ Taira N, Nihira K, Yamaguchi T, Miki Y, Yoshida K. DYRK2 is targeted to the nucleus and controls p53 via Ser46 phosphorylation in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2007 Mar 9;25(5):725-38. PMID:17349958 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.02.007
- ↑ Allton K, Jain AK, Herz HM, Tsai WW, Jung SY, Qin J, Bergmann A, Johnson RL, Barton MC. Trim24 targets endogenous p53 for degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 14;106(28):11612-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0813177106. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PMID:19556538 doi:10.1073/pnas.0813177106
- ↑ Huarte M, Guttman M, Feldser D, Garber M, Koziol MJ, Kenzelmann-Broz D, Khalil AM, Zuk O, Amit I, Rabani M, Attardi LD, Regev A, Lander ES, Jacks T, Rinn JL. A large intergenic noncoding RNA induced by p53 mediates global gene repression in the p53 response. Cell. 2010 Aug 6;142(3):409-19. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.040. PMID:20673990 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.040
- ↑ Wu L, Ma CA, Zhao Y, Jain A. Aurora B interacts with NIR-p53, leading to p53 phosphorylation in its DNA-binding domain and subsequent functional suppression. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 21;286(3):2236-44. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.174755. Epub 2010 , Oct 19. PMID:20959462 doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.174755
- ↑ Vaseva AV, Marchenko ND, Ji K, Tsirka SE, Holzmann S, Moll UM. p53 opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore to trigger necrosis. Cell. 2012 Jun 22;149(7):1536-48. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.014. PMID:22726440 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.014