[ADA17_HUMAN] Defects in ADAM17 are a cause of neonatal inflammatory skin and bowel disease (NISBD) [MIM:614328]. NISBD is a disorder characterized by inflammatory features with neonatal onset, involving the skin, hair, and gut. The skin lesions involve perioral and perianal erythema, psoriasiform erythroderma, with flares of erythema, scaling, and widespread pustules. Gastrointestinal symptoms include malabsorptive diarrhea that is exacerbated by intercurrent gastrointestinal infections. The hair is short or broken, and the eyelashes and eyebrows are wiry and disorganized.
[ADA17_HUMAN] Cleaves the membrane-bound precursor of TNF-alpha to its mature soluble form. Responsible for the proteolytical release of soluble JAM3 from endothelial cells surface. Responsible for the proteolytic release of several other cell-surface proteins, including p75 TNF-receptor, interleukin 1 receptor type II, p55 TNF-receptor, transforming growth factor-alpha, L-selectin, growth hormone receptor, MUC1 and the amyloid precursor protein. Also involved in the activation of Notch pathway (By similarity).
The crystallization of TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) has been useful in understanding the structure-activity relationships of new chemical entities. However, the propensity of TACE to undergo autoproteolysis has made enzyme handling difficult and impeded the identification of inhibitor soakable crystal forms. The autoproteolysis of TACE was found to be specific (Y352-V353) and occurred within a flexible loop that is in close proximity to the P-side of the active site. The rate of autoproteolysis was found to be proportional to the concentration of TACE, suggesting a bimolecular reaction mechanism. A limited specificity study of the S(1)' subsite was conducted using surrogate peptides and suggested substitutions that would stabilize the proteolysis of the loop at positions Y352-V353. Two mutant proteases (V353G and V353S) were generated and proved to be highly resistant to autoproteolysis. The kinetics of the more resistant mutant (V353G) and wild-type TACE were compared and demonstrated virtually identical IC(50) values for a panel of competitive inhibitors. However, the k(cat)/K(m) of the mutant for a larger substrate (P6 - P(6)') was approximately 5-fold lower than that for the wild-type enzyme. Comparison of the complexed wild-type and mutant structures indicated a subtle shift in a peripheral P-side loop (comprising the mutation site) that may be involved in substrate binding/turnover and might explain the mild kinetic difference. The characterization of this stabilized form of TACE has yielded an enzyme with similar native kinetic properties and identified a novel crystal form that is suitable for inhibitor soaking and structure determination.
Stabilization of the autoproteolysis of TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) results in a novel crystal form suitable for structure-based drug design studies.,Ingram RN, Orth P, Strickland CL, Le HV, Madison V, Beyer BM Protein Eng Des Sel. 2006 Apr;19(4):155-61. Epub 2006 Feb 3. PMID:16459338
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Blaydon DC, Biancheri P, Di WL, Plagnol V, Cabral RM, Brooke MA, van Heel DA, Ruschendorf F, Toynbee M, Walne A, O'Toole EA, Martin JE, Lindley K, Vulliamy T, Abrams DJ, MacDonald TT, Harper JI, Kelsell DP. Inflammatory skin and bowel disease linked to ADAM17 deletion. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 20;365(16):1502-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1100721. PMID:22010916 doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1100721
↑ Thathiah A, Blobel CP, Carson DD. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme/ADAM 17 mediates MUC1 shedding. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 31;278(5):3386-94. Epub 2002 Nov 18. PMID:12441351 doi:10.1074/jbc.M208326200
↑ Rabquer BJ, Amin MA, Teegala N, Shaheen MK, Tsou PS, Ruth JH, Lesch CA, Imhof BA, Koch AE. Junctional adhesion molecule-C is a soluble mediator of angiogenesis. J Immunol. 2010 Aug 1;185(3):1777-85. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1000556. Epub 2010, Jun 30. PMID:20592283 doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000556
↑ Ingram RN, Orth P, Strickland CL, Le HV, Madison V, Beyer BM. Stabilization of the autoproteolysis of TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) results in a novel crystal form suitable for structure-based drug design studies. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2006 Apr;19(4):155-61. Epub 2006 Feb 3. PMID:16459338 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzj014