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|2g1m, resolution 2.20Å ()|
|Gene:||EGLN1, C1orf12 (Homo sapiens)|
Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)
Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-alpha subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 A resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded beta-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.
Cellular oxygen sensing: Crystal structure of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2)., McDonough MA, Li V, Flashman E, Chowdhury R, Mohr C, Lienard BM, Zondlo J, Oldham NJ, Clifton IJ, Lewis J, McNeill LA, Kurzeja RJ, Hewitson KS, Yang E, Jordan S, Syed RS, Schofield CJ, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 27;103(26):9814-9. Epub 2006 Jun 16. PMID:16782814
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[EGLN1_HUMAN] Defects in EGLN1 are the cause of familial erythrocytosis type 3 (ECYT3) [MIM:609820]. ECYT3 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased serum red blood cell mass, elevated serum hemoglobin and hematocrit, and normal serum erythropoietin levels.
[EGLN1_HUMAN] Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific proline found in each of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains (N-terminal, NODD, and C-terminal, CODD) of HIF1A. Also hydroxylates HIF2A. Has a preference for the CODD site for both HIF1A and HIF1B. Hydroxylated HIFs are then targeted for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation reaction is attenuated allowing HIFs to escape degradation resulting in their translocation to the nucleus, heterodimerization with HIF1B, and increased expression of hypoxy-inducible genes. EGLN1 is the most important isozyme under normoxia and, through regulating the stability of HIF1, involved in various hypoxia-influenced processes such as angiogenesis in retinal and cardiac functionality.
About this Structure
- McDonough MA, Li V, Flashman E, Chowdhury R, Mohr C, Lienard BM, Zondlo J, Oldham NJ, Clifton IJ, Lewis J, McNeill LA, Kurzeja RJ, Hewitson KS, Yang E, Jordan S, Syed RS, Schofield CJ. Cellular oxygen sensing: Crystal structure of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 27;103(26):9814-9. Epub 2006 Jun 16. PMID:16782814
- ↑ Percy MJ, Zhao Q, Flores A, Harrison C, Lappin TR, Maxwell PH, McMullin MF, Lee FS. A family with erythrocytosis establishes a role for prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 in oxygen homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 17;103(3):654-9. Epub 2006 Jan 9. PMID:16407130 doi:0508423103
- ↑ Percy MJ, Furlow PW, Beer PA, Lappin TR, McMullin MF, Lee FS. A novel erythrocytosis-associated PHD2 mutation suggests the location of a HIF binding groove. Blood. 2007 Sep 15;110(6):2193-6. Epub 2007 Jun 19. PMID:17579185 doi:10.1182/blood-2007-04-084434
- ↑ Epstein AC, Gleadle JM, McNeill LA, Hewitson KS, O'Rourke J, Mole DR, Mukherji M, Metzen E, Wilson MI, Dhanda A, Tian YM, Masson N, Hamilton DL, Jaakkola P, Barstead R, Hodgkin J, Maxwell PH, Pugh CW, Schofield CJ, Ratcliffe PJ. C. elegans EGL-9 and mammalian homologs define a family of dioxygenases that regulate HIF by prolyl hydroxylation. Cell. 2001 Oct 5;107(1):43-54. PMID:11595184
- ↑ Ivan M, Haberberger T, Gervasi DC, Michelson KS, Gunzler V, Kondo K, Yang H, Sorokina I, Conaway RC, Conaway JW, Kaelin WG Jr. Biochemical purification and pharmacological inhibition of a mammalian prolyl hydroxylase acting on hypoxia-inducible factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13459-64. Epub 2002 Sep 26. PMID:12351678 doi:10.1073/pnas.192342099
- ↑ Ozer A, Wu LC, Bruick RK. The candidate tumor suppressor ING4 represses activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 24;102(21):7481-6. Epub 2005 May 16. PMID:15897452 doi:0502716102
- ↑ Yasumoto K, Kowata Y, Yoshida A, Torii S, Sogawa K. Role of the intracellular localization of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 May;1793(5):792-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.01.014. , Epub 2009 Feb 5. PMID:19339211 doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.01.014
- ↑ Su Y, Loos M, Giese N, Metzen E, Buchler MW, Friess H, Kornberg A, Buchler P. Prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD2) exerts tumor-suppressive activity in pancreatic cancer. Cancer. 2012 Feb 15;118(4):960-72. doi: 10.1002/cncr.26344. Epub 2011 Jul 26. PMID:21792862 doi:10.1002/cncr.26344