Structural and biophysical characterization of the EPHB4-EPHRINB2 protein protein interaction and receptor specificity.
[EPHB4_HUMAN] Receptor tyrosine kinase which binds promiscuously transmembrane ephrin-B family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signaling into neighboring cells. The signaling pathway downstream of the receptor is referred to as forward signaling while the signaling pathway downstream of the ephrin ligand is referred to as reverse signaling. Together with its cognate ligand/functional ligand EFNB2 plays a central role in heart morphogenesis and angiogenesis through regulation of cell adhesion and cell migration. EPHB4-mediated forward signaling controls cellular repulsion and segregation form EFNB2-expressing cells. Plays also a role in postnatal blood vessel remodeling, morphogenesis and permeability and is thus important in the context of tumor angiogenesis.  [EFNB2_HUMAN] Cell surface transmembrane ligand for Eph receptors, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases which are crucial for migration, repulsion and adhesion during neuronal, vascular and epithelial development. Binds promiscuously Eph receptors residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signaling into neighboring cells. The signaling pathway downstream of the receptor is referred to as forward signaling while the signaling pathway downstream of the ephrin ligand is referred to as reverse signaling. Binds to receptor tyrosine kinase including EPHA4, EPHA3 and EPHB4. Together with EPHB4 plays a central role in heart morphogenesis and angiogenesis through regulation of cell adhesion and cell migration. EPHB4-mediated forward signaling controls cellular repulsion and segregation from EFNB2-expressing cells. May play a role in constraining the orientation of longitudinally projecting axons.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Increasing evidence implicates the interaction of the EphB4 receptor with its preferred ligand, ephrinB2, in pathological forms of angiogenesis and in tumorigenesis. To identify the molecular determinants of the unique specificity of EphB4 for ephrinB2, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of EphB4 in complex with the extracellular domain of ephrinB2. This structural analysis suggested that one amino acid, Leu-95, plays a particularly important role in defining the structural features that confer the ligand selectivity of EphB4. Indeed, all other Eph receptors, which promiscuously bind many ephrins, have a conserved arginine at the position corresponding to Leu-95 of EphB4. We have also found that amino acid changes in the EphB4 ligand binding cavity, designed based on comparison with the crystal structure of the more promiscuous EphB2 receptor, yield EphB4 variants with altered binding affinity for ephrinB2 and an antagonistic peptide. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments with an EphB4 Leu-95 to arginine mutant confirmed the importance of this amino acid in conferring high affinity binding to both ephrinB2 and the antagonistic peptide ligand. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements also revealed an interesting thermodynamic discrepancy between ephrinB2 binding, which is an entropically driven process, and peptide binding, which is an enthalpically driven process. These results provide critical information on the EphB4*ephrinB2 protein interfaces and their mode of interaction, which will facilitate development of small molecule compounds inhibiting the EphB4*ephrinB2 interaction as novel cancer therapeutics.
Structural and biophysical characterization of the EphB4*ephrinB2 protein-protein interaction and receptor specificity.,Chrencik JE, Brooun A, Kraus ML, Recht MI, Kolatkar AR, Han GW, Seifert JM, Widmer H, Auer M, Kuhn P J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 22;281(38):28185-92. Epub 2006 Jul 25. PMID:16867992
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.