Crystal Structure of catalytic domain of Son of sevenless (Rem-Cdc25) in the absence of Ras
[SOS1_HUMAN] Defects in SOS1 are the cause of gingival fibromatosis 1 (GGF1) [MIM:135300]; also known as GINGF1. Gingival fibromatosis is a rare overgrowth condition characterized by a benign, slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva. GGF1 is usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, although sporadic cases are common. Defects in SOS1 are the cause of Noonan syndrome type 4 (NS4) [MIM:610733]. NS4 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, hypertelorism, cardiac anomalies, deafness, motor delay, and a bleeding diathesis. It is a genetically heterogeneous and relatively common syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000-2500 live births. Rarely, NS4 is associated with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). SOS1 mutations engender a high prevalence of pulmonary valve disease; atrial septal defects are less common.       
[SOS1_HUMAN] Promotes the exchange of Ras-bound GDP by GTP.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The Ras-specific guanine nucleotide-exchange factors Son of sevenless (Sos) and Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 (RasGRF1) transduce extracellular stimuli into Ras activation by catalyzing the exchange of Ras-bound GDP for GTP. A truncated form of RasGRF1 containing only the core catalytic Cdc25 domain is sufficient for stimulating Ras nucleotide exchange, whereas the isolated Cdc25 domain of Sos is inactive. At a site distal to the catalytic site, nucleotide-bound Ras binds to Sos, making contacts with the Cdc25 domain and with a Ras exchanger motif (Rem) domain. This allosteric Ras binding stimulates nucleotide exchange by Sos, but the mechanism by which this stimulation occurs has not been defined. We present a crystal structure of the Rem and Cdc25 domains of Sos determined at 2.0-A resolution in the absence of Ras. Differences between this structure and that of Sos bound to two Ras molecules show that allosteric activation of Sos by Ras occurs through a rotation of the Rem domain that is coupled to a rotation of a helical hairpin at the Sos catalytic site. This motion relieves steric occlusion of the catalytic site, allowing substrate Ras binding and nucleotide exchange. A structure of the isolated RasGRF1 Cdc25 domain determined at 2.2-A resolution, combined with computational analyses, suggests that the Cdc25 domain of RasGRF1 is able to maintain an active conformation in isolation because the helical hairpin has strengthened interactions with the Cdc25 domain core. These results indicate that RasGRF1 lacks the allosteric activation switch that is crucial for Sos activity.
A Ras-induced conformational switch in the Ras activator Son of sevenless.,Freedman TS, Sondermann H, Friedland GD, Kortemme T, Bar-Sagi D, Marqusee S, Kuriyan J Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 7;103(45):16692-7. Epub 2006 Oct 30. PMID:17075039
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.