N-terminal DHPH cassette of Trio in complex with nucleotide-free Rac1
[RAC1_HUMAN] Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts. In glioma cells, promotes cell migration and invasion.     Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction.     [TRIO_HUMAN] Promotes the exchange of GDP by GTP. Together with leukocyte antigen-related (LAR) protein, it could play a role in coordinating cell-matrix and cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for cell migration and cell growth.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Rho-family GTPases are activated by the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, a process that is catalyzed by Dbl-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The catalytic unit of Dbl-family GEFs consists of a Dbl homology (DH) domain followed almost invariantly by a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain. The majority of the catalytic interface forms between the switch regions of the GTPase and the DH domain, but full catalytic activity often requires the associated PH domain. Although PH domains are usually characterized as lipid-binding regions, they also participate in protein-protein interactions. For example, the DH-associated PH domain of Dbs must contact its cognate GTPases for efficient exchange. Similarly, the N-terminal DH/PH fragment of Trio, which catalyzes exchange on both Rac1 and RhoG, is fourfold more active in vitro than the isolated DH domain. Given continued uncertainty regarding functional roles of DH-associated PH domains, we have undertaken structural and functional analyses of the N-terminal DH/PH cassette of Trio. The crystal structure of this fragment of Trio bound to nucleotide-depleted Rac1 highlights the engagement of the PH domain with Rac1 and substitution of residues involved in this interface substantially diminishes activation of Rac1 and RhoG. Also, these mutations significantly reduce the ability of full-length Trio to induce neurite outgrowth dependent on RhoG activation in PC-12 cells. Overall, these studies substantiate a general role for DH-associated PH domains in engaging Rho GTPases directly for efficient guanine nucleotide exchange and support a parsimonious explanation for the essentially invariant linkage between DH and PH domains.
The DH and PH domains of Trio coordinately engage Rho GTPases for their efficient activation.,Chhatriwala MK, Betts L, Worthylake DK, Sondek J J Mol Biol. 2007 May 18;368(5):1307-20. Epub 2007 Feb 22. PMID:17391702
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.