[IRAK4_HUMAN] Defects in IRAK4 are the cause of recurrent isolated invasive pneumococcal disease type 1 (IPD1) [MIM:610799]. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is defined as two episodes of IPD occurring at least 1 month apart, whether caused by the same or different serotypes or strains. Recurrent IPD occurs in at least 2% of patients in most series, making IPD the most important known risk factor for subsequent IPD. Defects in IRAK4 are the cause of IRAK4 deficiency (IRAK4D) [MIM:607676]. IRAK4 deficiency causes extracellular pyogenic bacterial and fungal infections in otherwise healthy children.
[IRAK4_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response against foreign pathogens. Involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and IL-1R signaling pathways. Is rapidly recruited by MYD88 to the receptor-signaling complex upon TLR activation to form the Myddosome together with IRAK2. Phosphorylates initially IRAK1, thus stimulating the kinase activity and intensive autophosphorylation of IRAK1. Phosphorylates E3 ubiquitin ligases Pellino proteins (PELI1, PELI2 and PELI3) to promote pellino-mediated polyubiquitination of IRAK1. Then, the ubiquitin-binding domain of IKBKG/NEMO binds to polyubiquitinated IRAK1 bringing together the IRAK1-MAP3K7/TAK1-TRAF6 complex and the NEMO-IKKA-IKKB complex. In turn, MAP3K7/TAK1 activates IKKs (CHUK/IKKA and IKBKB/IKKB) leading to NF-kappa-B nuclear translocation and activation. Alternatively, phosphorylates TIRAP to promote its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Phosphorylates NCF1 and regulates NADPH oxidase activation after LPS stimulation suggesting a similar mechanism during microbial infections.
IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 plays a central role in innate and adaptive immunity, and is a crucial component in IL-1/TLR signaling. We have determined the crystal structures of the apo and ligand-bound forms of human IRAK4 kinase domain. These structures reveal several features that provide opportunities for the design of selective IRAK4 inhibitors. The N-terminal lobe of the IRAK4 kinase domain is structurally distinctive due to a loop insertion after an extended N-terminal helix. The gatekeeper residue is a tyrosine, a unique feature of the IRAK family. The IRAK4 structures also provide insights into the regulation of its activity. In the apo structure, two conformations coexist, differing in the relative orientation of the two kinase lobes and the position of helix C. In the presence of an ATP analog only one conformation is observed, indicating that this is the active conformation.
Cutting Edge: IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 structures reveal novel features and multiple conformations.,Kuglstatter A, Villasenor AG, Shaw D, Lee SW, Tsing S, Niu L, Song KW, Barnett JW, Browner MF J Immunol. 2007 Mar 1;178(5):2641-5. PMID:17312103
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↑ Kuglstatter A, Villasenor AG, Shaw D, Lee SW, Tsing S, Niu L, Song KW, Barnett JW, Browner MF. Cutting Edge: IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 structures reveal novel features and multiple conformations. J Immunol. 2007 Mar 1;178(5):2641-5. PMID:17312103