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|2p1t, resolution 1.80Å ()|
|Gene:||RXRA, NR2B1 (Homo sapiens)|
|Related:||1lbd, 1fby, 1mvc, 1xdk, 2p1u, 2p1v|
Crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of the retinoid X receptor alpha in complex with 3-(2'-methoxy)-tetrahydronaphtyl cinnamic acid and a fragment of the coactivator TIF-2
Retinoid X receptors (RXRalpha, -beta, and -gamma) occupy a central position in the nuclear receptor superfamily, because they form heterodimers with many other family members and hence are involved in the control of a variety of (patho)physiologic processes. Selective RXR ligands, referred to as rexinoids, are already used or are being developed for cancer therapy and have promise for the treatment of metabolic diseases. However, important side effects remain associated with existing rexinoids. Here we describe the rational design and functional characterization of a spectrum of RXR modulators ranging from partial to pure antagonists and demonstrate their utility as tools to probe the implication of RXRs in cell biological phenomena. One of these ligands renders RXR activity particularly sensitive to coactivator levels and has the potential to act as a cell-specific RXR modulator. A combination of crystallographic and fluorescence anisotropy studies reveals the molecular details accounting for the agonist-to-antagonist transition and provides direct experimental evidence for a correlation between the pharmacological activity of a ligand and its impact on the structural dynamics of the activation helix H12. Using RXR and its cognate ligands as a model system, our correlative analysis of 3D structures and dynamic data provides an original view on ligand actions and enables the establishment of mechanistic concepts, which will aid in the development of selective nuclear receptor modulators.
Modulators of the structural dynamics of the retinoid X receptor to reveal receptor function., Nahoum V, Perez E, Germain P, Rodriguez-Barrios F, Manzo F, Kammerer S, Lemaire G, Hirsch O, Royer CA, Gronemeyer H, de Lera AR, Bourguet W, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 30;104(44):17323-8. Epub 2007 Oct 18. PMID:17947383
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[NCOA2_HUMAN] Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving NCOA2 may be a cause of acute myeloid leukemias. Inversion inv(8)(p11;q13) generates the KAT6A-NCOA2 oncogene, which consists of the N-terminal part of KAT6A and the C-terminal part of NCOA2/TIF2. KAT6A-NCOA2 binds to CREBBP and disrupts its function in transcription activation.
[RXRA_HUMAN] Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes. [NCOA2_HUMAN] Transcriptional coactivator for steroid receptors and nuclear receptors. Coactivator of the steroid binding domain (AF-2) but not of the modulating N-terminal domain (AF-1). Required with NCOA1 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues.
About this Structure
- Nahoum V, Perez E, Germain P, Rodriguez-Barrios F, Manzo F, Kammerer S, Lemaire G, Hirsch O, Royer CA, Gronemeyer H, de Lera AR, Bourguet W. Modulators of the structural dynamics of the retinoid X receptor to reveal receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 30;104(44):17323-8. Epub 2007 Oct 18. PMID:17947383
- ↑ Gorla-Bajszczak A, Juge-Aubry C, Pernin A, Burger AG, Meier CA. Conserved amino acids in the ligand-binding and tau(i) domains of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha are necessary for heterodimerization with RXR. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999 Jan 25;147(1-2):37-47. PMID:10195690
- ↑ Harish S, Ashok MS, Khanam T, Rangarajan PN. Serine 27, a human retinoid X receptor alpha residue, phosphorylated by protein kinase A is essential for cyclicAMP-mediated downregulation of RXRalpha function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Dec 29;279(3):853-7. PMID:11162439 doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.4043
- ↑ Tsutsumi T, Suzuki T, Shimoike T, Suzuki R, Moriya K, Shintani Y, Fujie H, Matsuura Y, Koike K, Miyamura T. Interaction of hepatitis C virus core protein with retinoid X receptor alpha modulates its transcriptional activity. Hepatology. 2002 Apr;35(4):937-46. PMID:11915042 doi:10.1053/jhep.2002.32470
- ↑ Santos NC, Kim KH. Activity of retinoic acid receptor-alpha is directly regulated at its protein kinase A sites in response to follicle-stimulating hormone signaling. Endocrinology. 2010 May;151(5):2361-72. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-1338. Epub 2010 Mar , 9. PMID:20215566 doi:10.1210/en.2009-1338
- ↑ Voegel JJ, Heine MJ, Tini M, Vivat V, Chambon P, Gronemeyer H. The coactivator TIF2 contains three nuclear receptor-binding motifs and mediates transactivation through CBP binding-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J. 1998 Jan 15;17(2):507-19. PMID:9430642 doi:10.1093/emboj/17.2.507