Crystal structure of ni human ARG-insulin
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The metal ions in insulin hexamer play a crucial role in the T to R conformational transitions. We have determined the crystal structures of 2Mn2+, 1Rb1+ and 4Ni2+ human arg-insulin and compared them with the 2Zn2+ structure. The first two structures exist in the T3R3f state like the native 2Zn2+ arg-insulin, while the 4Ni2+ adopts a T6 conformation. The metal coordination is found to be tetrahedral in all the structures except that of nickel where a dual octahedral and tetrahedral coordination is found at one site. Rubidium occupies only one of the high affinity metal binding sites. The metal induced structural changes observed, have been explained.
Metal induced structural changes observed in hexameric insulin.,Sreekanth R, Pattabhi V, Rajan SS Int J Biol Macromol. 2009 Jan 1;44(1):29-36. Epub 2008 Oct 14. PMID:18977386
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.