CRYSTAL STRUCTURE FORM ULTALENTE INSULIN MICROCRYSTALS
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Ultralente insulin has been one of the commercially most important insulin preparations in diabetes treatment over the last 50 years. It is a suspension of insulin microcrystals which dissolve slowly following subcutaneous injection. Because of the small crystal size of about 25 x 25 x 5 mum(3) the atomic structure has been elusive until now. Here we present the crystal structures from Ultralente and their precursor microcrystals from the industrial manufacturing process. During this process insulin undergoes a conformational change within the microcrystals. Both structures show canonical folding of the insulin molecules but exhibit a number of new features when compared with other insulin structures. Surprisingly, we found that the Ultralente crystals bind the conservation agent methylparaben, which slows down dissolution of the crystals and thus contributes to the long duration of action. Proteins 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Crystal structure of Ultralente-A microcrystalline insulin suspension.,Wagner A, Diez J, Schulze-Briese C, Schluckebier G Proteins. 2008 Sep 2. PMID:18767151
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.