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COMPLEMENT C3B IN COMPLEX WITH FACTOR H DOMAINS 1-4
[CO3_HUMAN] Defects in C3 are the cause of complement component 3 deficiency (C3D) [MIM:613779]. A rare defect of the complement classical pathway. Patients develop recurrent, severe, pyogenic infections because of ineffective opsonization of pathogens. Some patients may also develop autoimmune disorders, such as arthralgia and vasculitic rashes, lupus-like syndrome and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.     [:] Genetic variation in C3 is associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration type 9 (ARMD9) [MIM:611378]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane.  Defects in C3 are a cause of susceptibility to hemolytic uremic syndrome atypical type 5 (AHUS5) [MIM:612925]. An atypical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome. It is a complex genetic disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and absence of episodes of enterocolitis and diarrhea. In contrast to typical hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical forms have a poorer prognosis, with higher death rates and frequent progression to end-stage renal disease. Note=Susceptibility to the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome can be conferred by mutations in various components of or regulatory factors in the complement cascade system. Other genes may play a role in modifying the phenotype.   Note=Increased levels of C3 and its cleavage product ASP, are associated with obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Short-term endurance training reduces baseline ASP levels and subsequently fat storage.
[CO3_HUMAN] C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C3b can bind covalently, via its reactive thioester, to cell surface carbohydrates or immune aggregates.        Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C3, C3a anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces the contraction of smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability and causes histamine release from mast cells and basophilic leukocytes.        Acylation stimulating protein (ASP): adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes, regulating fat storage and playing a role in postprandial TG clearance. Appears to stimulate TG synthesis via activation of the PLC, MAPK and AKT signaling pathways. Ligand for GPR77. Promotes the phosphorylation, ARRB2-mediated internalization and recycling of GPR77.       
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Factor H (FH) is an abundant regulator of complement activation and protects host cells from self-attack by complement. Here we provide insight into the regulatory activity of FH by solving the crystal structure of the first four domains of FH in complex with its target, complement fragment C3b. FH interacted with multiple domains of C3b, covering a large, extended surface area. The structure indicated that FH destabilizes the C3 convertase by competition and electrostatic repulsion and that FH enables proteolytic degradation of C3b by providing a binding platform for protease factor I while stabilizing the overall domain arrangement of C3b. Our results offer general models for complement regulation and provide structural explanations for disease-related mutations in the genes encoding both FH and C3b.
Structure of complement fragment C3b-factor H and implications for host protection by complement regulators.,Wu J, Wu YQ, Ricklin D, Janssen BJ, Lambris JD, Gros P Nat Immunol. 2009 Jul;10(7):728-33. Epub 2009 Jun 7. PMID:19503104
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.