Structural dissection of human mitogen-activated kinase ERK1
[MK03_HUMAN] Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade.           
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a member of the MAP kinase family, and can regulate several cellular responses. The isoforms ERK1 and ERK2 have markedly similar amino acid sequences, but exhibit distinctive physiological functions. As well as ERK2, ERK1 was auto- and mono-phosphorylated at Tyr204 in the activation loop during Escherichia coli production, resulting in basal level activity, approximately 500-fold less compared with fully-active ERK1 dual-phosphorylated at Thr202 and Tyr204. Crystal structure demonstrated that the mono-phosphorylated ERK1 kinase possessed a novel conformation distinguishable from the un-phosphorylated (inactive) and the dual-phosphorylated (full-active) forms. The characteristic structural features in both the C-helix and the activation loop likely contribute to the basal activity of the mono-phosphorylated ERK1. The structural dissection of ERK1 compared to ERK2 suggests that the structural differences in the D-motif binding site and in the backside binding site are putative targets for development of selective ERK1/ERK2 inhibitors.
Crystal structure of human mono-phosphorylated ERK1 at Tyr204.,Kinoshita T, Yoshida I, Nakae S, Okita K, Gouda M, Matsubara M, Yokota K, Ishiguro H, Tada T Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 26;377(4):1123-7. Epub 2008 Nov 5. PMID:18983981
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.