|3a9e, resolution 2.75Å ()|
|Gene:||Rxra, Nr2b1 (Mus musculus), RARA, NR1B1 (Homo sapiens)|
Crystal structure of a mixed agonist-bound RAR-alpha and antagonist-bound RXR-alpha heterodimer ligand binding domains
Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and Retinoid X nuclear receptors (RXRs) are ligand-dependent transcriptional modulators that execute their biological action through the generation of functional heterodimers. RXR acts as an obligate dimer partner in many signalling pathways, gene regulation by rexinoids depending on the liganded state of the specific heterodimeric partner. To address the question of the effect of rexinoid antagonists on RAR/RXR function, we solved the crystal structure of the heterodimer formed by the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the RARalpha bound to its natural agonist ligand (all-trans retinoic acid, atRA) and RXRalpha bound to a rexinoid antagonist (LG100754). We observed that RARalpha exhibits the canonical agonist conformation and RXRalpha an antagonist one with the C-terminal H12 flipping out to the solvent. Examination of the protein-LG100754 interactions reveals that its propoxy group sterically prevents the H12 associating with the LBD, without affecting the dimerization or the active conformation of RAR. Although LG100754 has been reported to act as a 'phantom ligand' activating RAR in a cellular context, our structural data and biochemical assays demonstrate that LG100754 mediates its effect as a full RXR antagonist. Finally we show that the 'phantom ligand effect' of the LG100754 is due to a direct binding of the ligand to RAR that stabilizes coactivator interactions thus accounting for the observed transcriptional activation of RAR/RXR.
The "Phantom Effect" of the Rexinoid LG100754: structural and functional insights., Sato Y, Ramalanjaona N, Huet T, Potier N, Osz J, Antony P, Peluso-Iltis C, Poussin-Courmontagne P, Ennifar E, Mely Y, Dejaegere A, Moras D, Rochel N, PLoS One. 2010 Nov 30;5(11):e15119. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015119. PMID:21152046
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[NCOA2_HUMAN] Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving NCOA2 may be a cause of acute myeloid leukemias. Inversion inv(8)(p11;q13) generates the KAT6A-NCOA2 oncogene, which consists of the N-terminal part of KAT6A and the C-terminal part of NCOA2/TIF2. KAT6A-NCOA2 binds to CREBBP and disrupts its function in transcription activation. [RARA_HUMAN] Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving RARA are commonly found in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Translocation t(11;17)(q32;q21) with ZBTB16/PLZF; translocation t(15;17)(q21;q21) with PML; translocation t(5;17)(q32;q11) with NPM. The PML-RARA oncoprotein requires both the PML ring structure and coiled-coil domain for both interaction with UBE2I, nuclear microspeckle location and sumoylation. In addition, the coiled-coil domain functions in blocking RA-mediated transactivation and cell differentiation.
[RXRA_MOUSE] Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes.   [NCOA2_HUMAN] Transcriptional coactivator for steroid receptors and nuclear receptors. Coactivator of the steroid binding domain (AF-2) but not of the modulating N-terminal domain (AF-1). Required with NCOA1 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. [RARA_HUMAN] Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis. In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis.   
About this Structure
- Sato Y, Ramalanjaona N, Huet T, Potier N, Osz J, Antony P, Peluso-Iltis C, Poussin-Courmontagne P, Ennifar E, Mely Y, Dejaegere A, Moras D, Rochel N. The "Phantom Effect" of the Rexinoid LG100754: structural and functional insights. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 30;5(11):e15119. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015119. PMID:21152046 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015119
- ↑ Leid M, Kastner P, Lyons R, Nakshatri H, Saunders M, Zacharewski T, Chen JY, Staub A, Garnier JM, Mader S, et al.. Purification, cloning, and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently. Cell. 1992 Jan 24;68(2):377-95. PMID:1310259
- ↑ Adam-Stitah S, Penna L, Chambon P, Rochette-Egly C. Hyperphosphorylation of the retinoid X receptor alpha by activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 2;274(27):18932-41. PMID:10383391
- ↑ Bastien J, Adam-Stitah S, Plassat JL, Chambon P, Rochette-Egly C. The phosphorylation site located in the A region of retinoic X receptor alpha is required for the antiproliferative effect of retinoic acid (RA) and the activation of RA target genes in F9 cells. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 9;277(32):28683-9. Epub 2002 May 24. PMID:12032153 doi:10.1074/jbc.M203623200
- ↑ Voegel JJ, Heine MJ, Tini M, Vivat V, Chambon P, Gronemeyer H. The coactivator TIF2 contains three nuclear receptor-binding motifs and mediates transactivation through CBP binding-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J. 1998 Jan 15;17(2):507-19. PMID:9430642 doi:10.1093/emboj/17.2.507
- ↑ Srinivas H, Xia D, Moore NL, Uray IP, Kim H, Ma L, Weigel NL, Brown PH, Kurie JM. Akt phosphorylates and suppresses the transactivation of retinoic acid receptor alpha. Biochem J. 2006 May 1;395(3):653-62. PMID:16417524 doi:10.1042/BJ20051794
- ↑ Zhu L, Santos NC, Kim KH. Small ubiquitin-like modifier-2 modification of retinoic acid receptor-alpha regulates its subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Endocrinology. 2009 Dec;150(12):5586-95. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0868. Epub 2009 Oct, 22. PMID:19850744 doi:10.1210/en.2009-0868
- ↑ Fujiki R, Chikanishi T, Hashiba W, Ito H, Takada I, Roeder RG, Kitagawa H, Kato S. GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis. Nature. 2009 May 21;459(7245):455-9. Epub 2009 Apr 19. PMID:19377461 doi:nature07954
- ↑ Santos NC, Kim KH. Activity of retinoic acid receptor-alpha is directly regulated at its protein kinase A sites in response to follicle-stimulating hormone signaling. Endocrinology. 2010 May;151(5):2361-72. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-1338. Epub 2010 Mar , 9. PMID:20215566 doi:10.1210/en.2009-1338