Complex of PKA with the bisubstrate protein kinase inhibitor ARC-1039
[KAPCA_HUMAN] Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates CDC25B, ABL1, NFKB1, CLDN3, PSMC5/RPT6, PJA2, RYR2, RORA, TRPC1 and VASP. RORA is activated by phosphorylation. Required for glucose-mediated adipogenic differentiation increase and osteogenic differentiation inhibition from osteoblasts. Involved in the regulation of platelets in response to thrombin and collagen; maintains circulating platelets in a resting state by phosphorylating proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways when in complex with NF-kappa-B (NFKB1 and NFKB2) and I-kappa-B-alpha (NFKBIA), but thrombin and collagen disrupt these complexes and free active PRKACA stimulates platelets and leads to platelet aggregation by phosphorylating VASP. Prevents the antiproliferative and anti-invasive effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine in breast cancer cells when activated. RYR2 channel activity is potentiated by phosphorylation in presence of luminal Ca(2+), leading to reduced amplitude and increased frequency of store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR) characterized by an increased rate of Ca(2+) release and propagation velocity of spontaneous Ca(2+) waves, despite reduced wave amplitude and resting cytosolic Ca(2+). TRPC1 activation by phosphorylation promotes Ca(2+) influx, essential for the increase in permeability induced by thrombin in confluent endothelial monolayers. PSMC5/RPT6 activation by phosphorylation stimulates proteasome. Regulates negatively tight junction (TJs) in ovarian cancer cells via CLDN3 phosphorylation. NFKB1 phosphorylation promotes NF-kappa-B p50-p50 DNA binding. Involved in embryonic development by down-regulating the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway that determines embryo pattern formation and morphogenesis. Isoform 2 phosphorylates and activates ABL1 in sperm flagellum to promote spermatozoa capacitation. Prevents meiosis resumption in prophase-arrested oocytes via CDC25B inactivation by phosphorylation. May also regulate rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT). Phosphorylates APOBEC3G and AICDA.          
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Crystal structures of the catalytic subunit alpha of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc) with three adenosine analogue-oligoarginine conjugates (ARCs) are presented. The rationally designed ARCs include moieties that, in combination, target both the ATP- and the peptide-substrate-binding sites of PKAc, thereby taking advantage of high-affinity binding interactions offered by the ATP site while utilizing an additional mechanism for target specificity via binding to the peptide substrate site. The crystal structures demonstrate that, in accord with the previously reported bisubstrate character of ARCs, the inhibitors occupy both binding sites of PKAc. Further, they show new binding modes that may also apply to natural protein substrates of PKAc, which have not been revealed by previous crystallographic studies. The crystal structures described here contribute to the understanding of the substrate-binding patterns of PKAc and should also facilitate the design of inhibitors targeting PKAc and related protein kinases.
Diversity of bisubstrate binding modes of adenosine analogue-oligoarginine conjugates in protein kinase a and implications for protein substrate interactions.,Pflug A, Rogozina J, Lavogina D, Enkvist E, Uri A, Engh RA, Bossemeyer D J Mol Biol. 2010 Oct 15;403(1):66-77. Epub 2010 Aug 21. PMID:20732331
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.