[PPARG_HUMAN] Note=Defects in PPARG can lead to type 2 insulin-resistant diabetes and hyptertension. PPARG mutations may be associated with colon cancer. Defects in PPARG may be associated with susceptibility to obesity (OBESITY) [MIM:601665]. It is a condition characterized by an increase of body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat. Defects in PPARG are the cause of familial partial lipodystrophy type 3 (FPLD3) [MIM:604367]. Familial partial lipodystrophies (FPLD) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by marked loss of subcutaneous (sc) fat from the extremities. Affected individuals show an increased preponderance of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Genetic variations in PPARG can be associated with susceptibility to glioma type 1 (GLM1) [MIM:137800]. Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Note=Polymorphic PPARG alleles have been found to be significantly over-represented among a cohort of American patients with sporadic glioblastoma multiforme suggesting a possible contribution to disease susceptibility.
[PPARG_HUMAN] Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. The search for new PPAR ligands with reduced adverse effects with respect to the marketed antidiabetic agents thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and the dual-agonists glitazars is highly desired. We report the crystal structure and activity of the two enantiomeric forms of a clofibric acid analogue, respectively complexed with the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of PPARgamma, and provide an explanation on a molecular basis for their different potency and efficacy against PPARgamma. The more potent S-enantiomer is a dual PPARalpha/PPARgamma agonist which presents a partial agonism profile against PPARgamma. Docking of the S-enantiomer in the PPARalpha-LBD has been performed to explain its different subtype pharmacological profile. The hypothesis that partial agonists show differential stabilization of helix 3, when compared to full agonists, is also discussed. Moreover, the structure of the complex with the S-enantiomer reveals a new region of the PPARgamma-LBD never sampled before by other ligands.
Crystal structure of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand binding domain complexed with a novel partial agonist: a new region of the hydrophobic pocket could be exploited for drug design.,Montanari R, Saccoccia F, Scotti E, Crestani M, Godio C, Gilardi F, Loiodice F, Fracchiolla G, Laghezza A, Tortorella P, Lavecchia A, Novellino E, Mazza F, Aschi M, Pochetti G J Med Chem. 2008 Dec 25;51(24):7768-76. PMID:19053776
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Hegele RA, Cao H, Frankowski C, Mathews ST, Leff T. PPARG F388L, a transactivation-deficient mutant, in familial partial lipodystrophy. Diabetes. 2002 Dec;51(12):3586-90. PMID:12453919
↑ Agarwal AK, Garg A. A novel heterozygous mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene in a patient with familial partial lipodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jan;87(1):408-11. PMID:11788685
↑ Mukherjee R, Jow L, Croston GE, Paterniti JR Jr. Identification, characterization, and tissue distribution of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms PPARgamma2 versus PPARgamma1 and activation with retinoid X receptor agonists and antagonists. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 21;272(12):8071-6. PMID:9065481
↑ Yin Y, Yuan H, Wang C, Pattabiraman N, Rao M, Pestell RG, Glazer RI. 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and promotes adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Feb;20(2):268-78. Epub 2005 Sep 8. PMID:16150867 doi:10.1210/me.2005-0197
↑ Park SH, Choi HJ, Yang H, Do KH, Kim J, Lee DW, Moon Y. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated C/EBP homologous protein enhances nuclear factor-kappaB signals via repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 12;285(46):35330-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.136259. Epub 2010, Sep 9. PMID:20829347 doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.136259
↑ Montanari R, Saccoccia F, Scotti E, Crestani M, Godio C, Gilardi F, Loiodice F, Fracchiolla G, Laghezza A, Tortorella P, Lavecchia A, Novellino E, Mazza F, Aschi M, Pochetti G. Crystal structure of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand binding domain complexed with a novel partial agonist: a new region of the hydrophobic pocket could be exploited for drug design. J Med Chem. 2008 Dec 25;51(24):7768-76. PMID:19053776 doi:10.1021/jm800733h