[ODP2_HUMAN] Note=Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the presence of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in patients' serum. It manifests with inflammatory obliteration of intra-hepatic bile duct, leading to liver cell damage and cirrhosis. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis show autoantibodies against the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Defects in DLAT are the cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency (PDHE2 deficiency) [MIM:245348]; also known as lactic acidemia due to defect of E2 lipoyl transacetylase of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidosis and neurological dysfunction in infancy and early childhood. In this form of PDH deficiency episodic dystonia is the major neurological manifestation, with other more common features of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, such as hypotonia and ataxia, being less prominent.
[ODP2_HUMAN] The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) is the central component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Structural comparison by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of the human full-length and truncated E2 (tE2) cores revealed flexible linkers emanating from the edges of trimers of the internal catalytic domains. Using the secondary structure constraints revealed in our 8 A cryo-EM reconstruction and the prokaryotic tE2 atomic structure as a template, we derived a pseudo atomic model of human tE2. The active sites are conserved between prokaryotic tE2 and human tE2. However, marked structural differences are apparent in the hairpin domain and in the N-terminal helix connected to the flexible linker. These permutations away from the catalytic center likely impart structures needed to integrate a second component into the inner core and provide a sturdy base for the linker that holds the pyruvate dehydrogenase for access by the E2-bound regulatory kinase/phosphatase components in humans.
Structures of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex cores: a highly conserved catalytic center with flexible N-terminal domains.,Yu X, Hiromasa Y, Tsen H, Stoops JK, Roche TE, Zhou ZH Structure. 2008 Jan;16(1):104-14. PMID:18184588
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Yu X, Hiromasa Y, Tsen H, Stoops JK, Roche TE, Zhou ZH. Structures of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex cores: a highly conserved catalytic center with flexible N-terminal domains. Structure. 2008 Jan;16(1):104-14. PMID:18184588 doi:10.1016/j.str.2007.10.024