Crystal structure of active site inhibited coagulation factor VIIA mutant in complex with soluble tissue factor
[FA7_HUMAN] Defects in F7 are the cause of factor VII deficiency (FA7D) [MIM:227500]. A hemorrhagic disease with variable presentation. The clinical picture can be very severe, with the early occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhages or repeated hemarthroses, or, in contrast, moderate with cutaneous-mucosal hemorrhages (epistaxis, menorrhagia) or hemorrhages provoked by a surgical intervention. Finally, numerous subjects are completely asymptomatic despite very low factor VII levels.                       
[FA7_HUMAN] Initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Serine protease that circulates in the blood in a zymogen form. Factor VII is converted to factor VIIa by factor Xa, factor XIIa, factor IXa, or thrombin by minor proteolysis. In the presence of tissue factor and calcium ions, factor VIIa then converts factor X to factor Xa by limited proteolysis. Factor VIIa will also convert factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. [TF_HUMAN] Initiates blood coagulation by forming a complex with circulating factor VII or VIIa. The [TF:VIIa] complex activates factors IX or X by specific limited protolysis. TF plays a role in normal hemostasis by initiating the cell-surface assembly and propagation of the coagulation protease cascade.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The intrinsic activity of coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is dependent on Ca(2+) binding to a loop (residues 210-220) in the protease domain. Structural analysis revealed that Ca(2+) may enhance the activity by attenuating electrostatic repulsion of Glu(296) and/or by facilitating interactions between the loop and Lys(161) in the N-terminal tail. In support of the first mechanism, the mutations E296V and D212N resulted in similar, about 2-fold, enhancements of the amidolytic activity. Moreover, mutation of the Lys(161)-interactive residue Asp(217) or Asp(219) to Ala reduced the amidolytic activity by 40-50%, whereas the K161A mutation resulted in 80% reduction. Hence one of these Asp residues in the Ca(2+)-binding loop appears to suffice for some residual interaction with Lys(161), whereas the more severe effect upon replacement of Lys(161) is due to abrogation of the interaction with the N-terminal tail. However, Ca(2+) attenuation of the repulsion between Asp(212) and Glu(296) keeps the activity above that of apoFVIIa. Altogether, our data suggest that repulsion involving Asp(212) in the Ca(2+)-binding loop suppresses FVIIa activity and that optimal activity requires a favorable interaction between the Ca(2+)-binding loop and the N-terminal tail. Crystal structures of tissue factor-bound FVIIa(D212N) and FVIIa(V158D/E296V/M298Q) revealed altered hydrogen bond networks, resembling those in factor Xa and thrombin, after introduction of the D212N and E296V mutations plausibly responsible for tethering the N-terminal tail to the activation domain. The charge repulsion between the Ca(2+)-binding loop and the activation domain appeared to be either relieved by charge removal and new hydrogen bonds (D212N) or abolished (E296V). We propose that Ca(2+) stimulates the intrinsic FVIIa activity by a combination of charge neutralization and loop stabilization.
Mechanism of the Ca2+-induced enhancement of the intrinsic factor VIIa activity.,Bjelke JR, Olsen OH, Fodje M, Svensson LA, Bang S, Bolt G, Kragelund BB, Persson E J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 19;283(38):25863-70. Epub 2008 Jul 17. PMID:18640965
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.