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3i2b, resolution 2.30Å ()
Ligands: , , ,
Gene: PTS (Homo sapiens)
Activity: 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase, with EC number
Related: 1gtq
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


The crystal structure of human 6 Pyruvoyl Tetrahydrobiopterin Synthase


[PTPS_HUMAN] Defects in PTS are the cause of BH4-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia type A (HPABH4A) [MIM:261640]; also called 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency (PTS deficiency) or hyperphenylalaninemia tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient due to PTS deficiency. HPABH4A is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by depletion of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and clinically by severe neurological symptoms unresponsive to the classic phenylalanine-low diet.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]


[PTPS_HUMAN] Involved in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Catalyzes the transformation of 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate into 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin.

About this Structure

3i2b is a 12 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.


  1. Scherer-Oppliger T, Leimbacher W, Blau N, Thony B. Serine 19 of human 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is phosphorylated by cGMP protein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 1999 Oct 29;274(44):31341-8. PMID:10531334
  2. Ashida A, Owada M, Hatakeyama K. A missense mutation (A to G) of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase in tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient form of hyperphenylalaninemia. Genomics. 1994 Nov 15;24(2):408-10. PMID:7698774 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/geno.1994.1642
  3. Thony B, Leimbacher W, Blau N, Harvie A, Heizmann CW. Hyperphenylalaninemia due to defects in tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism: molecular characterization of mutations in 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase. Am J Hum Genet. 1994 May;54(5):782-92. PMID:8178819
  4. Oppliger T, Thony B, Nar H, Burgisser D, Huber R, Heizmann CW, Blau N. Structural and functional consequences of mutations in 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase causing hyperphenylalaninemia in humans. Phosphorylation is a requirement for in vivo activity. J Biol Chem. 1995 Dec 8;270(49):29498-506. PMID:7493990
  5. Liu TT, Hsiao KJ. Identification of a common 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase mutation at codon 87 in Chinese phenylketonuria caused by tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis deficiency. Hum Genet. 1996 Sep;98(3):313-6. PMID:8707300
  6. Oppliger T, Thony B, Kluge C, Matasovic A, Heizmann CW, Ponzone A, Spada M, Blau N. Identification of mutations causing 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency in four Italian families. Hum Mutat. 1997;10(1):25-35. PMID:9222757 doi:<25::AID-HUMU4>3.0.CO;2-L 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)10:1<25::AID-HUMU4>3.0.CO;2-L
  7. Hanihara T, Inoue K, Kawanishi C, Sugiyama N, Miyakawa T, Onishi H, Yamada Y, Osaka H, Kosaka K, Iwabuchi K, Owada M. 6-Pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency with generalized dystonia and diurnal fluctuation of symptoms: a clinical and molecular study. Mov Disord. 1997 May;12(3):408-11. PMID:9159737 doi:10.1002/mds.870120321
  8. Liu TT, Hsiao KJ, Lu SF, Wu SJ, Wu KF, Chiang SH, Liu XQ, Chen RG, Yu WM. Mutation analysis of the 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase gene in Chinese hyperphenylalaninemia caused by tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis deficiency. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(1):76-83. PMID:9450907 doi:<76::AID-HUMU12>3.0.CO;2-W 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1998)11:1<76::AID-HUMU12>3.0.CO;2-W
  9. Romstad A, Guldberg P, Blau N, Guttler F. Single-step mutation scanning of the 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase gene in patients with hyperphenylalaninemia. Clin Chem. 1999 Dec;45(12):2102-8. PMID:10585341
  10. Scherer-Oppliger T, Matasovic A, Laufs S, Levy HL, Quackenbush EJ, Blau N, Thony B. Dominant negative allele (N47D) in a compound heterozygote for a variant of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency causing transient hyperphenylalaninemia. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(4):286-9. PMID:10220141 doi:<286::AID-HUMU4>3.0.CO;2-C 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1999)13:4<286::AID-HUMU4>3.0.CO;2-C
  11. Blau N, Scherer-Oppliger T, Baumer A, Riegel M, Matasovic A, Schinzel A, Jaeken J, Thony B. Isolated central form of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency associated with hemizygosity on chromosome 11q and a mutant allele of PTPS. Hum Mutat. 2000;16(1):54-60. PMID:10874306 doi:<54::AID-HUMU10>3.0.CO;2-C 10.1002/1098-1004(200007)16:1<54::AID-HUMU10>3.0.CO;2-C
  12. Dudesek A, Roschinger W, Muntau AC, Seidel J, Leupold D, Thony B, Blau N. Molecular analysis and long-term follow-up of patients with different forms of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency. Eur J Pediatr. 2001 May;160(5):267-76. PMID:11388593

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