3juh is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. This structure supersedes the now removed PDB entries and 1ymi. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA. For a guided tour on the structure components use FirstGlance.
Protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously found eukaryotic serine/threonine kinase that plays a role in various cellular key processes like proliferation, apoptosis and circadian rhythm. One of its prominent biochemical properties is its ability to use GTP as well as ATP as a cosubstrate (dual-cosubstrate specificity). This feature is exceptional among eukaryotic protein kinases, and its biological significance is unknown. We describe here a mutant of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) from Homo sapiens (hsCK2alpha) with a clear and CK2-atypical preference for ATP compared to GTP. This mutant was designed on the basis of several structures of CK2alpha from Zea mays (zmCK2alpha) in complex with various ATP-competitive ligands. A structural overlay revealed the existence of a "purine base binding plane" harbouring the planar moiety of the respective ligand like the purine base of ATP and GTP. This purine base binding plane is sandwiched between the side-chains of Ile66 (Val66 in hsCK2alpha) and Met163, and it adopts a significantly different orientation than in prominent homologues like cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CAPK). By exchanging these two flanking amino acids (Val66Ala, Met163Leu) in hsCK2alpha(1-335), a C-terminally truncated variant of hsCK2alpha, the cosubstrate specificity shifted in the expected direction so that the mutant strongly favours ATP. A structure determination of the mutant in complex with an ATP-analogue confirmed the predicted change of the purine base binding plane orientation. An unexpected but in retrospect plausible consequence of the mutagenesis was, that the helix alpha D region, which is in the direct neighbourhood of the ATP-binding site, has adopted a conformation that is more similar to CAPK and less favourable for binding of GTP. These findings demonstrate that CK2alpha possesses sophisticated structural adaptations in favour of dual-cosubstrate specificity, suggesting that this property could be of biological significance.
Inclining the purine base binding plane in protein kinase CK2 by exchanging the flanking side-chains generates a preference for ATP as a cosubstrate.,Yde CW, Ermakova I, Issinger OG, Niefind K J Mol Biol. 2005 Mar 25;347(2):399-414. Epub 2005 Jan 18. PMID:15740749
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Yde CW, Ermakova I, Issinger OG, Niefind K. Inclining the purine base binding plane in protein kinase CK2 by exchanging the flanking side-chains generates a preference for ATP as a cosubstrate. J Mol Biol. 2005 Mar 25;347(2):399-414. Epub 2005 Jan 18. PMID:15740749 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2005.01.003