Crystal structure of a mutant of human protein kinase CK2alpha with altered cosubstrate specificity
[CSK21_HUMAN] Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine. Regulates numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis and transcription, as well as viral infection. May act as a regulatory node which integrates and coordinates numerous signals leading to an appropriate cellular response. During mitosis, functions as a component of the p53/TP53-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that maintains cyclin-B-CDK1 activity and G2 arrest in response to spindle damage. Also required for p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis, phosphorylating 'Ser-392' of p53/TP53 following UV irradiation. Can also negatively regulate apoptosis. Phosphorylates the caspases CASP9 and CASP2 and the apoptotic regulator NOL3. Phosphorylation protects CASP9 from cleavage and activation by CASP8, and inhibits the dimerization of CASP2 and activation of CASP8. Regulates transcription by direct phosphorylation of RNA polymerases I, II, III and IV. Also phosphorylates and regulates numerous transcription factors including NF-kappa-B, STAT1, CREB1, IRF1, IRF2, ATF1, SRF, MAX, JUN, FOS, MYC and MYB. Phosphorylates Hsp90 and its co-chaperones FKBP4 and CDC37, which is essential for chaperone function. Regulates Wnt signaling by phosphorylating CTNNB1 and the transcription factor LEF1. Acts as an ectokinase that phosphorylates several extracellular proteins. During viral infection, phosphorylates various proteins involved in the viral life cycles of EBV, HSV, HBV, HCV, HIV, CMV and HPV.   
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously found eukaryotic serine/threonine kinase that plays a role in various cellular key processes like proliferation, apoptosis and circadian rhythm. One of its prominent biochemical properties is its ability to use GTP as well as ATP as a cosubstrate (dual-cosubstrate specificity). This feature is exceptional among eukaryotic protein kinases, and its biological significance is unknown. We describe here a mutant of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) from Homo sapiens (hsCK2alpha) with a clear and CK2-atypical preference for ATP compared to GTP. This mutant was designed on the basis of several structures of CK2alpha from Zea mays (zmCK2alpha) in complex with various ATP-competitive ligands. A structural overlay revealed the existence of a "purine base binding plane" harbouring the planar moiety of the respective ligand like the purine base of ATP and GTP. This purine base binding plane is sandwiched between the side-chains of Ile66 (Val66 in hsCK2alpha) and Met163, and it adopts a significantly different orientation than in prominent homologues like cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CAPK). By exchanging these two flanking amino acids (Val66Ala, Met163Leu) in hsCK2alpha(1-335), a C-terminally truncated variant of hsCK2alpha, the cosubstrate specificity shifted in the expected direction so that the mutant strongly favours ATP. A structure determination of the mutant in complex with an ATP-analogue confirmed the predicted change of the purine base binding plane orientation. An unexpected but in retrospect plausible consequence of the mutagenesis was, that the helix alpha D region, which is in the direct neighbourhood of the ATP-binding site, has adopted a conformation that is more similar to CAPK and less favourable for binding of GTP. These findings demonstrate that CK2alpha possesses sophisticated structural adaptations in favour of dual-cosubstrate specificity, suggesting that this property could be of biological significance.
Inclining the purine base binding plane in protein kinase CK2 by exchanging the flanking side-chains generates a preference for ATP as a cosubstrate.,Yde CW, Ermakova I, Issinger OG, Niefind K J Mol Biol. 2005 Mar 25;347(2):399-414. Epub 2005 Jan 18. PMID:15740749
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.