|3krr, resolution 1.80Å ()|
Crystal Structure of JAK2 complexed with a potent quinoxaline ATP site inhibitor
The recent discovery of an acquired activating point mutation in JAK2, substituting valine at amino acid position 617 for phenylalanine, has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Strikingly, the JAK2(V617F) mutation is found in nearly all patients suffering from polycythemia vera and in roughly every second patient suffering from essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Thus, JAK2 represents a promising target for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and considerable efforts are ongoing to discover and develop inhibitors of the kinase. Here, we report potent inhibition of JAK2(V617F) and JAK2 wild-type enzymes by a novel substituted quinoxaline, NVP-BSK805, which acts in an ATP-competitive manner. Within the JAK family, NVP-BSK805 displays more than 20-fold selectivity towards JAK2 in vitro, as well as excellent selectivity in broader kinase profiling. The compound blunts constitutive STAT5 phosphorylation in JAK2(V617F)-bearing cells, with concomitant suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In vivo, NVP-BSK805 exhibited good oral bioavailability and a long half-life. The inhibitor was efficacious in suppressing leukemic cell spreading and splenomegaly in a Ba/F3 JAK2(V617F) cell-driven mouse mechanistic model. Furthermore, NVP-BSK805 potently suppressed recombinant human erythropoietin-induced polycythemia and extramedullary erythropoiesis in mice and rats.
Potent and selective inhibition of polycythemia by the quinoxaline JAK2 inhibitor NVP-BSK805., Baffert F, Regnier CH, De Pover A, Pissot-Soldermann C, Tavares GA, Blasco F, Brueggen J, Chene P, Drueckes P, Erdmann D, Furet P, Gerspacher M, Lang M, Ledieu D, Nolan L, Ruetz S, Trappe J, Vangrevelinghe E, Wartmann M, Wyder L, Hofmann F, Radimerski T, Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Jul;9(7):1945-55. Epub 2010 Jun 29. PMID:20587663
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[JAK2_HUMAN] Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving JAK2 are found in both chronic and acute forms of eosinophilic, lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia. Translocation t(8;9)(p22;p24) with PCM1 links the protein kinase domain of JAK2 to the major portion of PCM1. Translocation t(9;12)(p24;p13) with ETV6. Defects in JAK2 are a cause of susceptibility to Budd-Chiari syndrome (BDCHS) [MIM:600880]. A syndrome caused by obstruction of hepatic venous outflow involving either the hepatic veins or the terminal segment of the inferior vena cava. Obstructions are generally caused by thrombosis and lead to hepatic congestion and ischemic necrosis. Clinical manifestations observed in the majority of patients include hepatomegaly, right upper quadrant pain and abdominal ascites. Budd-Chiari syndrome is associated with a combination of disease states including primary myeloproliferative syndromes and thrombophilia due to factor V Leiden, protein C deficiency and antithrombin III deficiency. Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare but typical complication in patients with polycythemia vera. Defects in JAK2 are a cause of polycythemia vera (PV) [MIM:263300]. A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements, erythroid hyperplasia, an absolute increase in total blood volume, but also by myeloid leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and splenomegaly. Defects in JAK2 gene may be the cause of thrombocythemia type 3 (THCYT3) [MIM:614521]. A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by elevated platelet levels due to sustained proliferation of megakaryocytes, and frequently lead to thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications. Defects in JAK2 are a cause of myelofibrosis (MYELOF) [MIM:254450]. Myelofibrosis is a disorder characterized by replacement of the bone marrow by fibrous tissue, occurring in association with a myeloproliferative disorder. Clinical manifestations may include anemia, pallor, splenomegaly, hypermetabolic state, petechiae, ecchymosis, bleeding, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, portal hypertension. Defects in JAK2 are a cause of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) [MIM:601626]. AML is a malignant disease in which hematopoietic precursors are arrested in an early stage of development.
[JAK2_HUMAN] Non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in various processes such as cell growth, development, differentiation or histone modifications. Mediates essential signaling events in both innate and adaptive immunity. In the cytoplasm, plays a pivotal role in signal transduction via its association with type I receptors such as growth hormone (GHR), prolactin (PRLR), leptin (LEPR), erythropoietin (EPOR), thrombopoietin (THPO); or type II receptors including IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma and multiple interleukins. Following ligand-binding to cell surface receptors, phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues on the cytoplasmic tails of the receptor, creating docking sites for STATs proteins. Subsequently, phosphorylates the STATs proteins once they are recruited to the receptor. Phosphorylated STATs then form homodimer or heterodimers and translocate to the nucleus to activate gene transcription. For example, cell stimulation with erythropoietin (EPO) during erythropoiesis leads to JAK2 autophosphorylation, activation, and its association with erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) that becomes phosphorylated in its cytoplasmic domain. Then, STAT5 (STAT5A or STAT5B) is recruited, phosphorylated and activated by JAK2. Once activated, dimerized STAT5 translocates into the nucleus and promotes the transcription of several essential genes involved in the modulation of erythropoiesis. In addition, JAK2 mediates angiotensin-2-induced ARHGEF1 phosphorylation. Plays a role in cell cycle by phosphorylating CDKN1B. Cooperates with TEC through reciprocal phosphorylation to mediate cytokine-driven activation of FOS transcription. In the nucleus, plays a key role in chromatin by specifically mediating phosphorylation of 'Tyr-41' of histone H3 (H3Y41ph), a specific tag that promotes exclusion of CBX5 (HP1 alpha) from chromatin.
About this Structure
- Baffert F, Regnier CH, De Pover A, Pissot-Soldermann C, Tavares GA, Blasco F, Brueggen J, Chene P, Drueckes P, Erdmann D, Furet P, Gerspacher M, Lang M, Ledieu D, Nolan L, Ruetz S, Trappe J, Vangrevelinghe E, Wartmann M, Wyder L, Hofmann F, Radimerski T. Potent and selective inhibition of polycythemia by the quinoxaline JAK2 inhibitor NVP-BSK805. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Jul;9(7):1945-55. Epub 2010 Jun 29. PMID:20587663 doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0053
- ↑ Baxter EJ, Scott LM, Campbell PJ, East C, Fourouclas N, Swanton S, Vassiliou GS, Bench AJ, Boyd EM, Curtin N, Scott MA, Erber WN, Green AR. Acquired mutation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in human myeloproliferative disorders. Lancet. 2005 Mar 19-25;365(9464):1054-61. PMID:15781101 doi:S0140-6736(05)71142-9
- ↑ James C, Ugo V, Le Couedic JP, Staerk J, Delhommeau F, Lacout C, Garcon L, Raslova H, Berger R, Bennaceur-Griscelli A, Villeval JL, Constantinescu SN, Casadevall N, Vainchenker W. A unique clonal JAK2 mutation leading to constitutive signalling causes polycythaemia vera. Nature. 2005 Apr 28;434(7037):1144-8. PMID:15793561 doi:10.1038/nature03546
- ↑ Kralovics R, Passamonti F, Buser AS, Teo SS, Tiedt R, Passweg JR, Tichelli A, Cazzola M, Skoda RC. A gain-of-function mutation of JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 28;352(17):1779-90. PMID:15858187 doi:352/17/1779
- ↑ Jamieson CH, Gotlib J, Durocher JA, Chao MP, Mariappan MR, Lay M, Jones C, Zehnder JL, Lilleberg SL, Weissman IL. The JAK2 V617F mutation occurs in hematopoietic stem cells in polycythemia vera and predisposes toward erythroid differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18;103(16):6224-9. Epub 2006 Apr 7. PMID:16603627 doi:0601462103
- ↑ Campbell PJ, Scott LM, Buck G, Wheatley K, East CL, Marsden JT, Duffy A, Boyd EM, Bench AJ, Scott MA, Vassiliou GS, Milligan DW, Smith SR, Erber WN, Bareford D, Wilkins BS, Reilly JT, Harrison CN, Green AR. Definition of subtypes of essential thrombocythaemia and relation to polycythaemia vera based on JAK2 V617F mutation status: a prospective study. Lancet. 2005 Dec 3;366(9501):1945-53. PMID:16325696 doi:S0140-6736(05)67785-9
- ↑ Mead AJ, Rugless MJ, Jacobsen SE, Schuh A. Germline JAK2 mutation in a family with hereditary thrombocytosis. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 8;366(10):967-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1200349. PMID:22397670 doi:10.1056/NEJMc1200349
- ↑ Lee JW, Kim YG, Soung YH, Han KJ, Kim SY, Rhim HS, Min WS, Nam SW, Park WS, Lee JY, Yoo NJ, Lee SH. The JAK2 V617F mutation in de novo acute myelogenous leukemias. Oncogene. 2006 Mar 2;25(9):1434-6. PMID:16247455 doi:1209163
- ↑ Parham C, Chirica M, Timans J, Vaisberg E, Travis M, Cheung J, Pflanz S, Zhang R, Singh KP, Vega F, To W, Wagner J, O'Farrell AM, McClanahan T, Zurawski S, Hannum C, Gorman D, Rennick DM, Kastelein RA, de Waal Malefyt R, Moore KW. A receptor for the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23 is composed of IL-12Rbeta1 and a novel cytokine receptor subunit, IL-23R. J Immunol. 2002 Jun 1;168(11):5699-708. PMID:12023369
- ↑ Dawson MA, Bannister AJ, Gottgens B, Foster SD, Bartke T, Green AR, Kouzarides T. JAK2 phosphorylates histone H3Y41 and excludes HP1alpha from chromatin. Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):819-22. doi: 10.1038/nature08448. Epub 2009 Sep 27. PMID:19783980 doi:10.1038/nature08448
- ↑ Guilluy C, Bregeon J, Toumaniantz G, Rolli-Derkinderen M, Retailleau K, Loufrani L, Henrion D, Scalbert E, Bril A, Torres RM, Offermanns S, Pacaud P, Loirand G. The Rho exchange factor Arhgef1 mediates the effects of angiotensin II on vascular tone and blood pressure. Nat Med. 2010 Feb;16(2):183-90. doi: 10.1038/nm.2079. Epub 2010 Jan 24. PMID:20098430 doi:10.1038/nm.2079
- ↑ Jakel H, Weinl C, Hengst L. Phosphorylation of p27Kip1 by JAK2 directly links cytokine receptor signaling to cell cycle control. Oncogene. 2011 Aug 11;30(32):3502-12. doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.68. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PMID:21423214 doi:10.1038/onc.2011.68