HER2 extracelluar region with affinity matured 3-helix affibody ZHER2:342
[ERBB2_HUMAN] Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) [MIM:137215]. A cancer predisposition syndrome with increased susceptibility to diffuse gastric cancer. Diffuse gastric cancer is a malignant disease characterized by poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions resulting in thickening of the stomach. Malignant tumors start in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. Defects in ERBB2 are involved in the development of glioma (GLM) [MIM:137800]. Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of susceptibility to ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]. Ovarian cancer common malignancy originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian neoplasms have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Defects in ERBB2 may be a cause of lung cancer (LNCR) [MIM:211980]. LNCR is a common malignancy affecting tissues of the lung. The most common form of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. NSCLC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]. A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving ERBB2 may be a cause gastric cancer. Deletions within 17q12 region producing fusion transcripts with CDK12, leading to CDK12-ERBB2 fusion leading to truncated CDK12 protein not in-frame with ERBB2.
[ERBB2_HUMAN] Protein tyrosine kinase that is part of several cell surface receptor complexes, but that apparently needs a coreceptor for ligand binding. Essential component of a neuregulin-receptor complex, although neuregulins do not interact with it alone. GP30 is a potential ligand for this receptor. Regulates outgrowth and stabilization of peripheral microtubules (MTs). Upon ERBB2 activation, the MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway elicits the phosphorylation and thus the inhibition of GSK3B at cell membrane. This prevents the phosphorylation of APC and CLASP2, allowing its association with the cell membrane. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization.      In the nucleus is involved in transcriptional regulation. Associates with the 5'-TCAAATTC-3' sequence in the PTGS2/COX-2 promoter and activates its transcription. Implicated in transcriptional activation of CDKN1A; the function involves STAT3 and SRC. Involved in the transcription of rRNA genes by RNA Pol I and enhances protein synthesis and cell growth.     
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is specifically overexpressed in tumors of several cancers, including an aggressive form of breast cancer. It is therefore a target for both cancer diagnostics and therapy. The 58 amino acid residue Zher2 affibody molecule was previously engineered as a high-affinity binder of HER2. Here we determined the structure of Zher2 in solution and the crystal structure of Zher2 in complex with the HER2 extracellular domain. Zher2 binds to a conformational epitope on HER2 that is distant from those recognized by the therapeutic antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Its small size and lack of interference may provide Zher2 with advantages for diagnostic use or even for delivery of therapeutic agents to HER2-expressing tumors when trastuzumab or pertuzumab are already employed. Biophysical characterization shows that Zher2 is thermodynamically stable in the folded state yet undergoing conformational interconversion on a submillisecond time scale. The data suggest that it is the HER2-binding conformation that is formed transiently prior to binding. Still, binding is very strong with a dissociation constant K(D) = 22 pM, and perfect conformational homogeneity is therefore not necessarily required in engineered binding proteins. A comparison of the original Z domain scaffold to free and bound Zher2 structures reveals how high-affinity binding has evolved during selection and affinity maturation and suggests how a compromise between binding surface optimization and stability and dynamics of the unbound state has been reached.
Structural basis for high-affinity HER2 receptor binding by an engineered protein.,Eigenbrot C, Ultsch M, Dubnovitsky A, Abrahmsen L, Hard T Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 24;107(34):15039-44. Epub 2010 Aug 9. PMID:20696930
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.