Fragment-Based Design of novel Estrogen Receptor Ligands
[NCOA1_HUMAN] Note=A chromosomal aberration involving NCOA1 is a cause of rhabdomyosarcoma. Translocation t(2;2)(q35;p23) with PAX3 generates the NCOA1-PAX3 oncogene consisting of the N-terminus part of PAX3 and the C-terminus part of NCOA1. The fusion protein acts as a transcriptional activator. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue carcinoma in childhood, representing 5-8% of all malignancies in children.
[ESR2_HUMAN] Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual. [NCOA1_HUMAN] Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (PGR, GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). Also involved in coactivation mediated by STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 transcription factors. Displays histone acetyltransferase activity toward H3 and H4; the relevance of such activity remains however unclear. Plays a central role in creating multisubunit coactivator complexes that act via remodeling of chromatin, and possibly acts by participating in both chromatin remodeling and recruitment of general transcription factors. Required with NCOA2 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Required for mediating steroid hormone response. Isoform 2 has a higher thyroid hormone-dependent transactivation activity than isoform 1 and isoform 3.      
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A library of small tetrahydroisoquinoline ligands, previously identified via structure- and chemistry-based hierarchical organization of library scaffolds in tree-like arrangements, has been generated as novel estrogen receptor agonistic fragments via traditional medicinal chemistry exploration. The approach described has allowed for the rapid evaluation of a structure-activity relationship of the ligands concerning estrogen receptor affinity and estrogen receptor beta subtype selectivity. The structural biological insights obtained from the fragments aid the understanding of larger analogues and constitute attractive starting points for further optimization.
Design and Evaluation of Fragment-Like Estrogen Receptor Tetrahydroisoquinoline Ligands from a Scaffold-Detection Approach.,Mocklinghoff S, van Otterlo WA, Rose R, Fuchs S, Zimmermann TJ, Dominguez Seoane M, Waldmann H, Ottmann C, Brunsveld L J Med Chem. 2011 Mar 7. PMID:21381753
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.