Crytal structure of hDLG1-PDZ2 complexed with APC
[APC_HUMAN] Defects in APC are a cause of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) [MIM:175100]; which includes also Gardner syndrome (GS). FAP and GS contribute to tumor development in patients with uninherited forms of colorectal cancer. FAP is characterized by adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum, but also of upper gastrointestinal tract (ampullary, duodenal and gastric adenomas). This is a viciously premalignant disease with one or more polyps progressing through dysplasia to malignancy in untreated gene carriers with a median age at diagnosis of 40 years.          Defects in APC are a cause of hereditary desmoid disease (HDD) [MIM:135290]; also known as familial infiltrative fibromatosis (FIF). HDD is an autosomal dominant trait with 100% penetrance and possible variable expression among affected relatives. HDD patients show multifocal fibromatosis of the paraspinal muscles, breast, occiput, arms, lower ribs, abdominal wall, and mesentery. Desmoid tumors appears also as a complication of familial adenomatous polyposis.  Defects in APC are a cause of medulloblastoma (MDB) [MIM:155255]. MDB is a malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children. Although the majority of medulloblastomas occur sporadically, some manifest within familial cancer syndromes such as Turcot syndrome and basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).   Defects in APC are a cause of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS) [MIM:276300]; also known as Turcot syndrome or brain tumor-polyposis syndrome 1 (BTPS1). MMRCS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malignant tumors of the brain associated with multiple colorectal adenomas. Skin features include sebaceous cysts, hyperpigmented and cafe au lait spots.   Defects in APC are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]; also called gastric cancer intestinal or stomach cancer. Gastric cancer is a malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease.  Defects in APC are a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [MIM:114550]. This defect includes also the disease entity termed hepatoblastoma. 
[DLG1_HUMAN] Essential multidomain scaffolding protein required for normal development (By similarity). Recruits channels, receptors and signaling molecules to discrete plasma membrane domains in polarized cells. May play a role in adherens junction assembly, signal transduction, cell proliferation, synaptogenesis and lymphocyte activation. Regulates the excitability of cardiac myocytes by modulating the functional expression of Kv4 channels. Functional regulator of Kv1.5 channel.      [APC_HUMAN] Tumor suppressor. Promotes rapid degradation of CTNNB1 and participates in Wnt signaling as a negative regulator. APC activity is correlated with its phosphorylation state. Activates the GEF activity of SPATA13 and ARHGEF4. Plays a role in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration. Required for MMP9 up-regulation via the JNK signaling pathway in colorectal tumor cells. Acts as a mediator of ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It is required for the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane and this localization of MACF1 is critical for its function in microtubule stabilization.    
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The human Discs Large 1 (DLG1) protein uses two of its three PDZ domains to interact with the C-terminal peptide of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein. The DLG1/APC complex inhibits the cell cycle progression from the G0/G1 to the S phase, regulates epithelial cell migration and morphogenesis, and is required for polarization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the molecular details of how DLG1 recognizes APC is not clear. In this study, we performed biochemical and biophysical assays to investigate the interactions between PDZ domains of DLG1 and the C-terminal peptide of APC. In addition, we determined the crystal structures of the PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of DLG1 each in complex with the C-terminal 11-residue peptide of APC. Our biochemical, biophysical, and structural results revealed structural elements and residues on PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of DLG1 and on APC crucial for their mutual interaction. In particular, our results show that the beta2/beta3 loops of PDZ1 and PDZ2 play important roles in contributing to the binding affinities between PDZ domains and APC, through interacting with the residues upstream of the canonical PDZ-binding S/T-X-V motif. The results provide new insights into the binding mode of a defined C-terminal segment of APC by the PDZ domains of DLG1.
Molecular basis for the recognition of adenomatous polyposis coli by the Discs Large 1 protein.,Zhang Z, Li H, Chen L, Lu X, Zhang J, Xu P, Lin K, Wu G PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23507. Epub 2011 Aug 17. PMID:21858148
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.