From Proteopediaproteopedia link
HLA-DR1 with covalently linked CLIP106-120 in canonical orientation
[DRA_HUMAN] Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal miroenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. [HG2A_HUMAN] Plays a critical role in MHC class II antigen processing by stabilizing peptide-free class II alpha/beta heterodimers in a complex soon after their synthesis and directing transport of the complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endosomal/lysosomal system where the antigen processing and binding of antigenic peptides to MHC class II takes place. Serves as cell surface receptor for the cytokine MIF.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Class II proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) typically present exogenous antigenic peptides to cognate T cell receptors of T lymphocytes. The exact conformation of peptide-MHCII complexes (pMHCII) can vary depending on the length, register and orientation of the bound peptide. We have recently found the self-peptide CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain-derived peptide) to adopt a dynamic bidirectional binding mode with regard to the human MHCII HLA-DR1 (HLA, human leukocyte antigen). We suggested that inversely bound peptides could activate specific T cell clones in the context of autoimmunity. As a first step to prove this hypothesis, pMHC complexes restricted to either the canonical or the inverted peptide orientation have to be constructed. Here, we show that genetically encoded linkage of CLIP and two other antigenic peptides to the HLA-DR1 alpha-chain results in stable complexes with inversely bound ligands. Two-dimensional NMR and biophysical analyses indicate that the CLIP-bound pMHC(inv) complex (pMHC(inv), inverted MHCII-peptide complex) displays high thermodynamic stability but still allows for the exchange against higher-affinity viral antigen. Complemented by comparable data on a corresponding beta-chain-fused canonical HLA-DR1/CLIP complex, we further show that linkage of CLIP leads to a binding mode exactly the same as that of the corresponding unlinked constructs. We suggest that our approach constitutes a general strategy to create pMHC(inv) complexes. Such engineering is needed to create orientation-specific antibodies and raise T cells to study phenomena of autoimmunity caused by isomeric pMHCs.
Peptide Linkage to the alpha-Subunit of MHCII Creates a Stably Inverted Antigen Presentation Complex.,Schlundt A, Gunther S, Sticht J, Wieczorek M, Roske Y, Heinemann U, Freund C J Mol Biol. 2012 Jul 20. PMID:22820093
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.