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4e99, resolution 2.30Å ()
Gene: ALB (Homo sapiens)
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Human Serum Albumin Complex with Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Potassium

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a man-made fluorosurfactant and globally persistent organic pollutant. PFOS is mainly distributed in blood with a long half-life for elimination. PFOS was found mainly bound to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma, the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, which transports a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. However, the structural basis of such binding remains unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the HSA-PFOS complex and show that PFOS binds to HSA at a molar ratio of 2:1. In addition, PFOS binding renders the HSA structure more compact. Our results provide a structural mechanism to understand the retention of surfactants in human serum.

Structural evidence of perfluorooctane sulfonate transport by human serum albumin., Luo Z, Shi X, Hu Q, Zhao B, Huang M, Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 May 21;25(5):990-2. Epub 2012 Apr 16. PMID:22482699

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[ALBU_HUMAN] Defects in ALB are a cause of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) [MIM:103600]. FDH is a form of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia that is due to increased affinity of ALB for T(4). It is the most common cause of inherited euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia in Caucasian population.[1][2][3][4]


[ALBU_HUMAN] Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.[5]

About this Structure

4e99 is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Luo Z, Shi X, Hu Q, Zhao B, Huang M. Structural evidence of perfluorooctane sulfonate transport by human serum albumin. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 May 21;25(5):990-2. Epub 2012 Apr 16. PMID:22482699 doi:10.1021/tx300112p
  1. Sunthornthepvarakul T, Angkeow P, Weiss RE, Hayashi Y, Refetoff S. An identical missense mutation in the albumin gene results in familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in 8 unrelated families. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Jul 29;202(2):781-7. PMID:8048949
  2. Rushbrook JI, Becker E, Schussler GC, Divino CM. Identification of a human serum albumin species associated with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Feb;80(2):461-7. PMID:7852505
  3. Wada N, Chiba H, Shimizu C, Kijima H, Kubo M, Koike T. A novel missense mutation in codon 218 of the albumin gene in a distinct phenotype of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in a Japanese kindred. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3246-50. PMID:9329347
  4. Sunthornthepvarakul T, Likitmaskul S, Ngowngarmratana S, Angsusingha K, Kitvitayasak S, Scherberg NH, Refetoff S. Familial dysalbuminemic hypertriiodothyroninemia: a new, dominantly inherited albumin defect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 May;83(5):1448-54. PMID:9589637
  5. Lu J, Stewart AJ, Sadler PJ, Pinheiro TJ, Blindauer CA. Albumin as a zinc carrier: properties of its high-affinity zinc-binding site. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1317-21. doi: 10.1042/BST0361317. PMID:19021548 doi:10.1042/BST0361317

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