First time at Proteopedia? Click on the green links: they change the 3D image. Click and drag the molecules. Proteopedia is a 3D, interactive encyclopedia of proteins, RNA, DNA and other molecules. With a free user account, you can edit pages in Proteopedia. Visit the Main Page to learn more.

3bx7

From Proteopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
3bx7, resolution 2.10Å ()
Gene: CTLA4, CD152 (Homo sapiens)
Related: 3bx8
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Engineered Human Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in Complex with the Extracellular Domain of Human CTLA-4

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Biomolecular reagents that enable the specific molecular recognition of proteins play a crucial role in basic research as well as medicine. Up to now, antibodies (immunoglobulins) have been widely used for this purpose. Their predominant feature is the vast repertoire of antigen-binding sites that arise from a set of 6 hypervariable loops. However, antibodies suffer from practical disadvantages because of their complicated architecture, large size, and multiple functions. The lipocalins, on the other hand, have evolved as a protein family that primarily serves for the binding of small molecules. Here, we show that an engineered lipocalin, derived from human Lcn2, can specifically bind the T cell coreceptor CTLA-4 as a prescribed protein target with subnanomolar affinity. Crystallographic analysis reveals that its reshaped cup-like binding site, which is formed by 4 variable loops, provides perfect structural complementarity with this "antigen." Furthermore, comparison with the crystal structure of the uncomplexed engineered lipocalin indicates a pronounced induced-fit mechanism, a phenomenon so far considered typical for antibodies. By recognizing the same epitope on CTLA-4 that interacts with the counterreceptors B7.1/B7.2 on antigen-presenting cells the engineered Lcn2 exhibits strong, cross-species antagonistic activity, as evidenced by biological effects comparable with a CTLA-4-specific antibody. With its proven stimulatory activity on T cells in vivo, the CTLA-4 blocking lipocalin offers potential for immunotherapy of cancer and infectious disease. Beyond that, lipocalins with engineered antigen-binding sites, so-called Anticalins, provide a class of small ( approximately 180 residues), structurally simple, and robust binding proteins with applications in the life sciences in general.

An engineered lipocalin specific for CTLA-4 reveals a combining site with structural and conformational features similar to antibodies., Schonfeld D, Matschiner G, Chatwell L, Trentmann S, Gille H, Hulsmeyer M, Brown N, Kaye PM, Schlehuber S, Hohlbaum AM, Skerra A, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 19;106(20):8198-203. Epub 2009 May 5. PMID:019416843

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[CTLA4_HUMAN] Genetic variation in CTLA4 influences susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [MIM:152700]. SLE is a chronic, inflammatory and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue. It affects principally the skin, joints, kidneys and serosal membranes. SLE is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system.[1] Note=Genetic variations in CTLA4 may influence susceptibility to Graves disease, an autoimmune disorder associated with overactivity of the thyroid gland and hyperthyroidism.[2] Genetic variation in CTLA4 is the cause of susceptibility to diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 12 (IDDM12) [MIM:601388]. A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.[3][4] Genetic variation in CTLA4 is the cause of susceptibility to celiac disease type 3 (CELIAC3) [MIM:609755]. It is a multifactorial disorder of the small intestine that is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. It is characterized by malabsorption resulting from inflammatory injury to the mucosa of the small intestine after the ingestion of wheat gluten or related rye and barley proteins. In its classic form, celiac disease is characterized in children by malabsorption and failure to thrive.

Function

[CTLA4_HUMAN] Inhibitory receptor acting as a major negative regulator of T-cell responses. The affinity of CTLA4 for its natural B7 family ligands, CD80 and CD86, is considerably stronger than the affinity of their cognate stimulatory coreceptor CD28.[5][6]

About this Structure

3bx7 is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  1. Chistyakov DA, Savost'anov KV, Turakulov RI, Petunina NA, Trukhina LV, Kudinova AV, Balabolkin MI, Nosikov VV. Complex association analysis of graves disease using a set of polymorphic markers. Mol Genet Metab. 2000 Jul;70(3):214-8. PMID:10924276 doi:10.1006/mgme.2000.3007
  2. Chistyakov DA, Savost'anov KV, Turakulov RI, Petunina NA, Trukhina LV, Kudinova AV, Balabolkin MI, Nosikov VV. Complex association analysis of graves disease using a set of polymorphic markers. Mol Genet Metab. 2000 Jul;70(3):214-8. PMID:10924276 doi:10.1006/mgme.2000.3007
  3. Chistyakov DA, Savost'anov KV, Turakulov RI, Petunina NA, Trukhina LV, Kudinova AV, Balabolkin MI, Nosikov VV. Complex association analysis of graves disease using a set of polymorphic markers. Mol Genet Metab. 2000 Jul;70(3):214-8. PMID:10924276 doi:10.1006/mgme.2000.3007
  4. Marron MP, Raffel LJ, Garchon HJ, Jacob CO, Serrano-Rios M, Martinez Larrad MT, Teng WP, Park Y, Zhang ZX, Goldstein DR, Tao YW, Beaurain G, Bach JF, Huang HS, Luo DF, Zeidler A, Rotter JI, Yang MC, Modilevsky T, Maclaren NK, She JX. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is associated with CTLA4 polymorphisms in multiple ethnic groups. Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Aug;6(8):1275-82. PMID:9259273
  5. Linsley PS, Brady W, Urnes M, Grosmaire LS, Damle NK, Ledbetter JA. CTLA-4 is a second receptor for the B cell activation antigen B7. J Exp Med. 1991 Sep 1;174(3):561-9. PMID:1714933
  6. Teft WA, Kirchhof MG, Madrenas J. A molecular perspective of CTLA-4 function. Annu Rev Immunol. 2006;24:65-97. PMID:16551244 doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.24.021605.090535

Proteopedia Page Contributors and Editors (what is this?)

OCA

Personal tools