Lipid metabolism

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Under development!!!


Lipid biosynthesis

Breakdown of lipids



Citric Acid Cycle is the second of three stages of cellular respiration, in which glucose, Fatty Acids and certain amino acids, the so-called fuel molecules, are oxidized

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) α, γ, and δ are members of the nuclear receptor family. Since their discovery in the early 90s, it has become clear that the PPARs are essential modulators of external stimuli, acting as transcription factors to regulate mammalian metabolism, cellular differentiation, and tumorigenesis. The PPARs are the targets of numerous pharmaceutical drugs aimed at treating hypolipidemia and diabetes among other diseases.

  • PPARα regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β oxidation[1].
  • PPARγ regulates the expression of genes involved a variety of physiological processes like development of adipose cells, cell proliferation, macrophage function and immunity[2]. For details see PPAR-gamma. For details on PPARγ drugs see Pioglitazone.
  • PPARδ regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid burning in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle[3].


  1. van Raalte DH, Li M, Pritchard PH, Wasan KM. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha: a pharmacological target with a promising future. Pharm Res. 2004 Sep;21(9):1531-8. PMID:15497675
  2. Tontonoz P, Spiegelman BM. Fat and beyond: the diverse biology of PPARgamma. Annu Rev Biochem. 2008;77:289-312. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.77.061307.091829. PMID:18518822 doi:
  3. Lagathu C, Kim M, Maachi M, Vigouroux C, Cervera P, Capeau J, Caron M, Bastard JP. HIV antiretroviral treatment alters adipokine expression and insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo. Biochimie. 2005 Jan;87(1):65-71. PMID:15733739 doi:

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Alexander Berchansky

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